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Java时间相关内容进修(7) TimeZone简介

2017-11-02 08:00 星期四 所属: JAVA 教程 浏览:80

副标题#e#

本章先容TimeZone。

TimeZone 简介

TimeZone 暗示时区偏移量,也可以计较夏令时。

在操纵 Date, Calendar等暗示日期/时间的工具时,常常会用到TimeZone;因为差异的时区,时间差异。

下面说说TimeZone工具的 2种常用建设方法。

1 获取默认的TimeZone工具

利用要领:

TimeZone tz = TimeZone.getDefault()

2 利用 getTimeZone(String id) 要领获取TimeZone工具

利用要领:

// 获取 “GMT+08:00”对应的时区

TimeZone china = TimeZone.getTimeZone("GMT+:08:00");

// 获取 “中国/重庆”对应的时区

TimeZone chongqing = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Asia/Chongqing");

关于 getTimeZone(String id) 这种方法支持的全部id参数的取值,可以通过以下方法查找:

String[] ids = TimeZone.getAvailableIDs();

for (String id:ids)

System.out.printf(id+", ");

输出功效:

Etc/GMT+12, Etc/GMT+11, Pacific/Midway, Pacific/Niue, Pacific/Pago_Pago, Pacific/Samoa, US/Samoa, America/Adak, America/Atka, Etc/GMT+10, HST, Pacific/Honolulu, Pacific/Johnston, Pacific/Rarotonga, Pacific/Tahiti, SystemV/HST10, US/Aleutian, US/Hawaii, Pacific/Marquesas, AST, America/Anchorage, America/Juneau, America/Nome, America/Sitka, America/Yakutat, Etc/GMT+9, Pacific/Gambier, SystemV/YST9, SystemV/YST9YDT, US/Alaska, America/Dawson, America/Ensenada, America/Los_Angeles, America/Metlakatla, America/Santa_Isabel, America/Tijuana, America/Vancouver, America/Whitehorse, Canada/Pacific, Canada/Yukon, Etc/GMT+8, Mexico/BajaNorte, PST, PST8PDT, Pacific/Pitcairn, SystemV/PST8, SystemV/PST8PDT, US/Pacific, US/Pacific-New, America/Boise, America/Cambridge_Bay, America/Chihuahua, America/Creston, America/Dawson_Creek, America/Denver, America/Edmonton, America/Hermosillo, America/Inuvik, America/Mazatlan, America/Ojinaga, America/Phoenix, America/Shiprock, America/Yellowknife, Canada/Mountain, Etc/GMT+7, MST, MST7MDT, Mexico/BajaSur, Navajo, PNT, SystemV/MST7, SystemV/MST7MDT, US/Arizona, US/Mountain, America/Bahia_Banderas, America/Belize, America/Cancun, America/Chicago, America/Costa_Rica, America/El_Salvador, America/Guatemala, America/Indiana/Knox, America/Indiana/Tell_City, America/Knox_IN, America/Managua, America/Matamoros, America/Menominee, America/Merida, America/Mexico_City, America/Monterrey, America/North_Dakota/Beulah, America/North_Dakota/Center, America/North_Dakota/New_Salem, America/Rainy_River, America/Rankin_Inlet, America/Regina, America/Resolute, America/Swift_Current, America/Tegucigalpa, America/Winnipeg, CST, CST6CDT, Canada/Central, Canada/East-Saskatchewan, Canada/Saskatchewan, Chile/EasterIsland, Etc/GMT+6, Mexico/General, Pacific/Easter, Pacific/Galapagos, SystemV/CST6, SystemV/CST6CDT, US/Central, US/Indiana-Starke, America/Atikokan, America/Bogota, America/Cayman, America/Coral_Harbour, America/Detroit, America/Fort_Wayne, America/Grand_Turk, America/Guayaquil, America/Havana, America/Indiana/Indianapolis, America/Indiana/Marengo, America/Indiana/Petersburg, America/Indiana/Vevay, America/Indiana/Vincennes, America/Indiana/Winamac, America/Indianapolis, America/Iqaluit, America/Jamaica, America/Kentucky/Louisville, America/Kentucky/Monticello, America/Lima, America/Louisville, America/Montreal, America/Nassau, America/New_York, America/Nipigon, America/Panama, America/Pangnirtung, America/Port-au-Prince, America/Thunder_Bay, America/Toronto, Canada/Eastern, Cuba, EST, EST5EDT, Etc/GMT+5, IET, Jamaica, SystemV/EST5, SystemV/EST5EDT, US/East-Indiana, US/Eastern, US/Michigan, America/Caracas, America/Anguilla, America/Antigua, America/Argentina/San_Luis, America/Aruba, America/Asuncion, America/Barbados, America/Blanc-Sablon, America/Boa_Vista, America/Campo_Grande, America/Cuiaba, America/Curacao, America/Dominica, America/Eirunepe, America/Glace_Bay, America/Goose_Bay, America/Grenada, America/Guadeloupe, America/Guyana, America/Halifax, America/Kralendijk, America/La_Paz, America/Lower_Princes, America/Manaus, America/Marigot, America/Martinique, America/Moncton, America/Montserrat, America/Port_of_Spain, America/Porto_Acre, America/Porto_Velho, America/Puerto_Rico, America/Rio_Branco, America/Santiago, America/Santo_Domingo, America/St_Barthelemy, America/St_Kitts, America/St_Lucia, America/St_Thomas, America/St_Vincent, America/Thule, America/Tortola, America/Virgin, Antarctica/Palmer, Atlantic/Bermuda, Brazil/Acre, Brazil/West, Canada/Atlantic, Chile/Continental, Etc/GMT+4, PRT, SystemV/AST4, SystemV/AST4ADT, America/St_Johns, CNT, Canada/Newfoundland, AGT, America/Araguaina, America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires, America/Argentina/Catamarca, America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia, America/Argentina/Cordoba, America/Argentina/Jujuy, America/Argentina/La_Rioja, America/Argentina/Mendoza, America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos, America/Argentina/Salta, America/Argentina/San_Juan, America/Argentina/Tucuman, America/Argentina/Ushuaia, America/Bahia, America/Belem, America/Buenos_Aires, America/Catamarca, America/Cayenne, America/Cordoba, America/Fortaleza, America/Godthab, America/Jujuy, America/Maceio, America/Mendoza, America/Miquelon, America/Montevideo, America/Paramaribo, America/Recife, America/Rosario, America/Santarem, America/Sao_Paulo, Antarctica/Rothera, Atlantic/Stanley, BET, Brazil/East, Etc/GMT+3, America/Noronha, Atlantic/South_Georgia, Brazil/DeNoronha, Etc/GMT+2, America/Scoresbysund, Atlantic/Azores, Atlantic/Cape_Verde, Etc/GMT+1, Africa/Abidjan, Africa/Accra, Africa/Bamako, Africa/Banjul, Africa/Bissau, Africa/Casablanca, Africa/Conakry, Africa/Dakar, Africa/El_Aaiun, Africa/Freetown, Africa/Lome, Africa/Monrovia, Africa/Nouakchott, Africa/Ouagadougou, Africa/Sao_Tome, Africa/Timbuktu, America/Danmarkshavn, Atlantic/Canary, Atlantic/Faeroe, Atlantic/Faroe, Atlantic/Madeira, Atlantic/Reykjavik, Atlantic/St_Helena, Eire, Etc/GMT, Etc/GMT+0, Etc/GMT-0, Etc/GMT0, Etc/Greenwich, Etc/UCT, Etc/UTC, Etc/Universal, Etc/Zulu, Europe/Belfast, Europe/Dublin, Europe/Guernsey, Europe/Isle_of_Man, Europe/Jersey, Europe/Lisbon, Europe/London, GB, GB-Eire, GMT, GMT0, Greenwich, Iceland, Portugal, UCT, UTC, Universal, WET, Zulu, Africa/Algiers, Africa/Bangui, Africa/Brazzaville, Africa/Ceuta, Africa/Douala, Africa/Kinshasa, Africa/Lagos, Africa/Libreville, Africa/Luanda, Africa/Malabo, Africa/Ndjamena, Africa/Niamey, Africa/Porto-Novo, Africa/Tunis, Africa/Windhoek, Arctic/Longyearbyen, Atlantic/Jan_Mayen, CET, ECT, Etc/GMT-1, Europe/Amsterdam, Europe/Andorra, Europe/Belgrade, Europe/Berlin, Europe/Bratislava, Europe/Brussels, Europe/Budapest, Europe/Copenhagen, Europe/Gibraltar, Europe/Ljubljana, Europe/Luxembourg, Europe/Madrid, Europe/Malta, Europe/Monaco, Europe/Oslo, Europe/Paris, Europe/Podgorica, Europe/Prague, Europe/Rome, Europe/San_Marino, Europe/Sarajevo, Europe/Skopje, Europe/Stockholm, Europe/Tirane, Europe/Vaduz, Europe/Vatican, Europe/Vienna, Europe/Warsaw, Europe/Zagreb, Europe/Zurich, MET, Poland, ART, Africa/Blantyre, Africa/Bujumbura, Africa/Cairo, Africa/Gaborone, Africa/Harare, Africa/Johannesburg, Africa/Kigali, Africa/Lubumbashi, Africa/Lusaka, Africa/Maputo, Africa/Maseru, Africa/Mbabane, Africa/Tripoli, Asia/Amman, Asia/Beirut, Asia/Damascus, Asia/Gaza, Asia/Hebron, Asia/Istanbul, Asia/Jerusalem, Asia/Nicosia, Asia/Tel_Aviv, CAT, EET, Egypt, Etc/GMT-2, Europe/Athens, Europe/Bucharest, Europe/Chisinau, Europe/Helsinki, Europe/Istanbul, Europe/Kiev, Europe/Mariehamn, Europe/Nicosia, Europe/Riga, Europe/Simferopol, Europe/Sofia, Europe/Tallinn, Europe/Tiraspol, Europe/Uzhgorod, Europe/Vilnius, Europe/Zaporozhye, Israel, Libya, Turkey, Africa/Addis_Ababa, Africa/Asmara, Africa/Asmera, Africa/Dar_es_Salaam, Africa/Djibouti, Africa/Juba, Africa/Kampala, Africa/Khartoum, Africa/Mogadishu, Africa/Nairobi, Antarctica/Syowa, Asia/Aden, Asia/Baghdad, Asia/Bahrain, Asia/Kuwait, Asia/Qatar, Asia/Riyadh, EAT, Etc/GMT-3, Europe/Kaliningrad, Europe/Minsk, Indian/Antananarivo, Indian/Comoro, Indian/Mayotte, Asia/Riyadh87, Asia/Riyadh88, Asia/Riyadh89, Mideast/Riyadh87, Mideast/Riyadh88, Mideast/Riyadh89, Asia/Tehran, Iran, Asia/Baku, Asia/Dubai, Asia/Muscat, Asia/Tbilisi, Asia/Yerevan, Etc/GMT-4, Europe/Moscow, Europe/Samara, Europe/Volgograd, Indian/Mahe, Indian/Mauritius, Indian/Reunion, NET, W-SU, Asia/Kabul, Antarctica/Mawson, Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Ashgabat, Asia/Ashkhabad, Asia/Dushanbe, Asia/Karachi, Asia/Oral, Asia/Samarkand, Asia/Tashkent, Etc/GMT-5, Indian/Kerguelen, Indian/Maldives, PLT, Asia/Calcutta, Asia/Colombo, Asia/Kolkata, IST, Asia/Kathmandu, Asia/Katmandu, Antarctica/Vostok, Asia/Almaty, Asia/Bishkek, Asia/Dacca, Asia/Dhaka, Asia/Qyzylorda, Asia/Thimbu, Asia/Thimphu, Asia/Yekaterinburg, BST, Etc/GMT-6, Indian/Chagos, Asia/Rangoon, Indian/Cocos, Antarctica/Davis, Asia/Bangkok, Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh, Asia/Hovd, Asia/Jakarta, Asia/Novokuznetsk, Asia/Novosibirsk, Asia/Omsk, Asia/Phnom_Penh, Asia/Pontianak, Asia/Saigon, Asia/Vientiane, Etc/GMT-7, Indian/Christmas, VST, Antarctica/Casey, Asia/Brunei, Asia/Choibalsan, Asia/Chongqing, Asia/Chungking, Asia/Harbin, Asia/Hong_Kong, Asia/Kashgar, Asia/Krasnoyarsk, Asia/Kuala_Lumpur, Asia/Kuching, Asia/Macao, Asia/Macau, Asia/Makassar, Asia/Manila, Asia/Shanghai, Asia/Singapore, Asia/Taipei, Asia/Ujung_Pandang, Asia/Ulaanbaatar, Asia/Ulan_Bator, Asia/Urumqi, Australia/Perth, Australia/West, CTT, Etc/GMT-8, Hongkong, PRC, Singapore, Australia/Eucla, Asia/Dili, Asia/Irkutsk, Asia/Jayapura, Asia/Pyongyang, Asia/Seoul, Asia/Tokyo, Etc/GMT-9, JST, Japan, Pacific/Palau, ROK, ACT, Australia/Adelaide, Australia/Broken_Hill, Australia/Darwin, Australia/North, Australia/South, Australia/Yancowinna, AET, Antarctica/DumontDUrville, Asia/Yakutsk, Australia/ACT, Australia/Brisbane, Australia/Canberra, Australia/Currie, Australia/Hobart, Australia/Lindeman, Australia/Melbourne, Australia/NSW, Australia/Queensland, Australia/Sydney, Australia/Tasmania, Australia/Victoria, Etc/GMT-10, Pacific/Chuuk, Pacific/Guam, Pacific/Port_Moresby, Pacific/Saipan, Pacific/Truk, Pacific/Yap, Australia/LHI, Australia/Lord_Howe, Antarctica/Macquarie, Asia/Sakhalin, Asia/Vladivostok, Etc/GMT-11, Pacific/Efate, Pacific/Guadalcanal, Pacific/Kosrae, Pacific/Noumea, Pacific/Pohnpei, Pacific/Ponape, SST, Pacific/Norfolk, Antarctica/McMurdo, Antarctica/South_Pole, Asia/Anadyr, Asia/Kamchatka, Asia/Magadan, Etc/GMT-12, Kwajalein, NST, NZ, Pacific/Auckland, Pacific/Fiji, Pacific/Funafuti, Pacific/Kwajalein, Pacific/Majuro, Pacific/Nauru, Pacific/Tarawa, Pacific/Wake, Pacific/Wallis, NZ-CHAT, Pacific/Chatham, Etc/GMT-13, MIT, Pacific/Apia, Pacific/Enderbury, Pacific/Fakaofo, Pacific/Tongatapu, Etc/GMT-14, Pacific/Kiritimati

譬喻,建设上面第2个打印值“Etc/GMT+11”对应的TimeZone。要领如下:

TimeZone tz = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Etc/GMT+11");

#p#分页标题#e#

TimeZone的函数接口

// 结构函数
TimeZone()
     
Object                           clone()
synchronized static String[]     getAvailableIDs()
synchronized static String[]     getAvailableIDs(int offsetMillis)
int                              getDSTSavings()
synchronized static TimeZone     getDefault()
final String                     getDisplayName(Locale locale)
String                           getDisplayName(boolean daylightTime, int style, Locale locale)
final String                     getDisplayName()
final String                     getDisplayName(boolean daylightTime, int style)
String                           getID()
abstract int                     getOffset(int era, int year, int month, int day, int dayOfWeek, int timeOfDayMillis)
int                              getOffset(long time)
abstract int                     getRawOffset()
synchronized static TimeZone     getTimeZone(String id)
boolean                          hasSameRules(TimeZone timeZone)
abstract boolean                 inDaylightTime(Date time)
synchronized static void         setDefault(TimeZone timeZone)
void                             setID(String id)
abstract void                    setRawOffset(int offsetMillis)
abstract boolean                 useDaylightTime()


#p#副标题#e#

2 TimeZone示例

下面通过示例演示在Date中利用TimeZone。

#p#分页标题#e#

参考代码如下(TimeZoneTest.java):

import java.text.DateFormat;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.TimeZone;
     
/**
 * TimeZone的测试措施
 *
 * @author skywang
 * @email [email protected]
 */
public class TimeZoneTest {
     
    public static void main(String[] args) {
     
        // 测试建设TimeZone工具的3种要领
        showUsageOfTimeZones() ;
     
        // 测试TimeZone的其它API
        testOtherAPIs() ;
     
        // 打印getTimeZone(String id)支持的所有id
        //printAllTimeZones() ;
    }
     
     
    /**
     * 测试建设TimeZone工具的3种要领
     */
    public static void showUsageOfTimeZones() {
        TimeZone tz;
     
        // (01) 默认时区
        tz = TimeZone.getDefault();
        printDateIn(tz) ;
     
        // (02) 配置时区为"GMT+08:00"
        tz = TimeZone.getTimeZone("GMT+08:00");
        printDateIn(tz) ;
     
        // (03) 配置时区为""
        tz = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Asia/Chongqing");
        printDateIn(tz) ;
    }
     
    /**
     * 打印 tz对应的日期/时间
     */
    private static void printDateIn(TimeZone tz) {
        // date为2013-09-19 14:22:30
        Date date = new Date(113, 8, 19, 14, 22, 30);
        // 获取默认的DateFormat,用于名目化Date
        DateFormat df = DateFormat.getInstance();
        // 配置时区为tz
        df.setTimeZone(tz);
        // 获取名目化后的字符串
        String str = df.format(date);
     
        System.out.println(tz.getID()+" :"+str);
    }
     
    /**
     * 测试TimeZone的其它API
     */
    public static void testOtherAPIs() {
        // 默认时区
        TimeZone tz = TimeZone.getDefault();
     
        // 获取“id”
        String id = tz.getID();
     
        // 获取“显示名称”
        String name = tz.getDisplayName();
     
        // 获取“时间偏移”。相对付“本初子午线”的偏移,单元是ms。
        int offset = tz.getRawOffset();
        // 获取“时间偏移” 对应的小时
        int gmt = offset/(3600*1000);
     
        System.out.printf("id=%s, name=%s, offset=%s(ms), gmt=%s\n",
                id, name, offset, gmt);
    }
     
    /**
     * 打印getTimeZone(String id)支持的所有id
     */
    public static void printAllTimeZones() {
     
        String[] ids = TimeZone.getAvailableIDs();
        for (String id:ids) {
            //int offset = TimeZone.getTimeZone(avaIds[i]).getRawOffset();
            //System.out.println(i+"  "+avaIds[i]+" "+offset / (3600 * 1000) + "\t");
            System.out.printf(id+", ");
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}

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