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java代写 For this assignment, we are going to look at the game Lights Out. This is a single-player game, played on an n by m rectangular board.

## ITI 1121. Introduction to Computing II Winter 2019

### Assignment 2

Deadline: February 25, 2019, 11:30 pm

Learning objectives

• Implementing a queue-basedalgorithm
• Utilizing arrays to storeinformation
• Experimenting with deepcopies
• Describing state space searchalgorithms

### Introduction

For this assignment, we are going to look at the game Lights Out. This is a single-player game, played on an n by m rectangular board. Initially, the board is entirely “off”. To play one step, the player selects one position on the board. When selected, the location and its (up to) four neighbours (up, down, left and right) switch value. If a location was “on”, then it is now “off”, and if it was “off”, it is now “on”. Figure 1 shows the different cases: one the left, the selected position is inside the board. In this case, that position and all four of its neighbours are switched to their respective opposite values. In the centre, the selected location is on the corner of the board, then it has only two neighbours, and the location and its two neighbours are switched to their respective opposite values. Finally, on the right, the selected location is along the border of the board, it has three neighbours, and the position and its three neighbours are switched to their respective opposite values.

Figure 1: Selecting one position switches that location and its neighbours to the south, north, east and west. De- pending on the location of the position, the total number of switched positions is five (left, the selected location is inside the board), four (right, the selected location is on the border of the board) or three (middle, the selected location is on the corner of the board).

The overall goal of the game is to go from a board that is entirely “off” to a board that is entirely “on”. A secondary goal is to do this using the fewer possible number of steps. There is no limitation regarding how often a given position can be selected nor in which order positions are selected.

In Figure 2, we illustrate a successful game of Lights Out on a 2×2 board. This particular game solves the problem in four steps, by selecting each of the four locations on the board one after the other, clockwise starting from the top left (shown by a red star).

The minimum number of steps required to solve the game is not a simple function of the size of the board. For example, consider a 3×2 board, as shown in Figure 3: although this board is larger than the 2×2 board of Figure 2, it can be solved in only two steps, whereas the 2×2 board actually requires at least four steps to solve. Figure 3 illustrates a two-step solution.

Figure 2: A successful completion of a Lights Out game on a 2×2 board, in four steps. The red star identifies the selected location at each step.

Another important point is the number of different solutions for a given size of board. Of course, this needs some definitions, since you can clearly extend any solution indefinitely by going back and forth between the same general board positions. We will clarify this momentarily, but for now let’s simply use an intuitive definition for which a solution does not include unnecessary steps. For a board the board of size 3×2, in addition to the solution depicted by the Figure 3, we can find at least three other distinct solutions, as illustrated Figure 4. Therefore, such a 3×2 board has at least four different solutions. On a board of size 2×2, on the other hand, we can only find one such a solution, the one we have seen Figure 2.

We now need to make two simple remarks regarding this game. These remarks will help us define and eventu- ally finding our solutions.

Remark 1 In a solution of the game Lights Out, it is never useful to select the same location twice in a row, as it simply puts back the board in the same state. If a solution selects the same location twice in a row, then a shorter, equivalent solution can be built by skipping these two selections.

Remark 1 is rather obvious, and proof is left as an exercise. It means that if you consider the following sequence on a 2×2 board: (1) Top Left (2) Bottom Right (3) Bottom Right (4) Top Right (5) Bottom Right (6) Bottom Left (which indeed reaches a full board), steps 2 and 3 cancel each other and a simpler equivalent sequence is (1) Top Left (2) Top Right (3) Bottom Right (4) Bottom Left.

The second remark is also rather simple, and the proof is also left as an exercise:

Remark 2 In any solution of the game Lights Out, any pair of consecutive steps can be exchanged without changing the resulting final board.

What Remark 2 says is that if you have a solution involving k steps, then for all i < k you can simply exchange step i and step i + 1 without changing the configuration of the board at the end. We can illustrate this on our solution for the 2×2 board. Our initial solution is:

• Top Left (2) Top Right (3) Bottom Right (4) Bottom Left Wecan for example exchange steps (2) and (3) and the solution will still work:

(1) Top Left (2) Bottom Right (3) Top Right (4) Bottom Left Or we can exchange step (1) and (2):

(1) Top Right (2) Top Left (3) Bottom Right (4) Bottom Left

Since exchanging two consecutive steps does not change the solution, we can continue exchanging two more  steps, for example (3) and (4):

(1) Top Right (2) Top Left (3) Bottom Left (4) Bottom Right

Figure 3: A successful completion of a Lights Out game on a 3×2 board, in two steps. The red star identifies the selected location at each step.

and again, for example (2) and (3) again:

(1) Top Right (2) Bottom Left (3) Top Left (4) Bottom Right

etc. In general, given a solution, any permutation of the steps produces and equivalent solution.

We can now combine Remarks 1 and 2 to observe that if the same position is used twice in a solution, then using Remark 2 we know that an equivalent solution can be constructed in which these two steps are consecutive, and then using Remarks 1 we can remove these two steps and obtain a shorter, equivalent solution. If we generalize that, in any solution, if a position is selected an even number of times, then an equivalent, simpler solution can  be constructed by not selecting that position at all, and if a position is selected an odd number of times, then an equivalent, simpler solution can be constructed by selecting that position only once overall. Therefore, a (reduced) solution uses each board position either zero or one time. Moreover, the order in which the positions used are selected is not important, which brings us to our definition of a solution:

Definition 1 A Solution for of the game Lights Out is a set of board positions.

Given that a solution is simply an unordered list of board positions,  in which each board position appears at    most one,  it will be simpler for us to represent a solution as a matrix of booleans.  The matrix will be of the same     size as the board, and an entry of the matrix will be true if that position is used in the solution, false otherwise.

For example, the single solution that we know for the 2×2 board is the following:

 true true true true

While our four solutions for the 3×2 board are the following:

Finally, the last bit of “theory” we are going to need about the game is a good way to decide if a “solution” is indeed working, that is, if it will bring a board that is entirely “off” to a board that is entirely “on”. For this, we only need to remark that each time a board position or one of its neighbours is selected, that board position will switch state. Starting from an “off” state, a board position ends with in an “on” state if and only if it is switched an odd number of times. Therefore, to figure out the end state of a board position for a given solution, it is enough to check how many times that position or one of its neighbours is selected in the solution: if that number is odd, then the position will end up in the state “on”, and if that number is even, it will end up in the state “off”. Since we want

Figure 4: Each row shows a different solution of the game Lights Out on a 3×2 board, two in two steps and two in  four steps.

the entire board to be “on” at the end, a solution will work if that property holds for all the positions, that is, for each board position, that position or one of its neighbours is selected an odd number of times.

Let’s illustrate that on our 2×2 solution:

 true true true true

We have:

• Top Left and its neighbours: selected 3times
• Top Right and its neighbours: selected 3times
• Bottom Left and its neighbours: selected 3times
• Bottom Right and its neighbours: selected 3times

and thus all positions have an odd number of selections. This solution works.

On this 3×2 solution:

 true true false true true false

We have:

• Position(1,1) and its neighbours:  selected 3 times
• Position(2,1) and its neighbours:  selected 3 times
• Position(3,1) and its neighbours: selected 1time
• Position(1,2) and its neighbours:  selected 3 times
• Position(2,2) and its neighbours:  selected 3 times
• Position(3,2) and its neighbours: selected 1time

and thus all positions have an odd number of selections. This solution works.

Finally, on this 3×2 solution:

 true false false false false true

We have:

• Position(1,1) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time
• Position(2,1) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time
• Position(3,1) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time
• Position(1,2) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time
• Position(2,2) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time
• Position(3,2) and its neighbours:  selected 1 time

and thus all positions have an odd number of selections. This solution works.

However, the following sequence:

 true false true false true false

is not a working solution, because:

• Position(1,1) and its neighbours: selected 1time
• Position(2,1) and its neighbours: selected 3times
• Position(3,1) and its neighbours: selected 1time
• Position(1,2) and its neighbours: selected 2times
• Position(2,2) and its neighbours: selected 1time
• Position(3,2) and its neighbours: selected 2times

and thus both positions (1,2) and (3,2) will end up in the “off” state.

#### 1 First Implementation [70 Marks]

We are now ready to solve our problem. We know what a solution looks like: this is a subset of all the board positions. We also know how to decide if a solution will work or not. Thus, we will start with a simple program which will try all the possible subsets of positions, and check which ones are solutions that actually work.

The following classes are going to be used for our solutions:

### 1.1 Solution

A Solution is a data structure which represents a (partial) solution to the Lights Out game. It portrays an array of arrays of booleans in which the current solution is stored.

We are going to build our solutions methodically. Since a solution identifies the board positions that are selected, in order to build our solution we will simply start from the position (1,1) and specify if (1,1) is selected or not in our solution. We then move to position (1,2) and we also specify if (1,2) is selected or not in our solution. We keep moving along, row by row, until the solution is completely specified.

Because we move systematically, row by row, always specifying the next position, we do not need to expressly say which board position we specify. The object will understand that we are specifying the next available position. In order to specify the next value, we will use a method called “setNext”. Two other methods are available us: the method “isReady” returns true if and only if the solution has been completely specified, that is, if all positions of the board have been explicitly set to either true or false. Finally, the method “isSuccessful” returns true if and only if the solution is completely specified and will solve the game. Of course we will also provide a method “toString”

to create a String representation an object Solution.

For example, consider this solution for a 3×2 board:

 true true false true true false

Here is an example of code to create this solution, test for completion and success:

```public c l a s s T e s t {

public  s t a t i c  void  main ( S t r i n g [ ]  a r g s )  { S o l u t i o n s o l u t i o n ;

s o l u t i o n =  new  S o l u t i o n ( 3 , 2 ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ;

s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( f a l s e ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( f a l s e ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( "Solution   is   ready:  "  +   s o l u t i o n . is Re a dy ( ) ) ; System . out . p r i n t l n ( "The   solution   is:" ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( s o l u t i o n ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( "Solution   is   successful:  "  +   s o l u t i o n . i s S u c c e s s f u l  ( ) ) ;

}

}```

The code will produce the following output:

> java Test

Solution is ready: true The solution is: [[true, true, false], [true,true,false]]

Solution is successful: true

>

If you consider instead the following solution for the same board:

 true false true false true false

The code to create this solution, test for completion midway through and at the end, and test for success is :

```public c l a s s T e s t {

public  s t a t i c  void  main ( S t r i n g [ ]  a r g s )  { S o l u t i o n s o l u t i o n ;

s o l u t i o n =  new  S o l u t i o n ( 3 , 2 ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ;

s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( f a l s e ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( "Midway   -  Solution   is   ready:  "  +   s o l u t i o n . is Re a dy ( ) ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( f a l s e ) ;

s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( true ) ; s o l u t i o n . s e t N e x t ( f a l s e ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( "Solution   is   ready:  "  +   s o l u t i o n . is Re a dy ( ) ) ; System . out . p r i n t l n ( "The   solution   is:" ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( s o l u t i o n ) ;

System . out . p r i n t l n ( "Solution   is   successful:  "  +   s o l u t i o n . i s S u c c e s s f u l  ( ) ) ;

}

}```

The code will produce the following output:

> java Test

Midway – Solution is ready: false Solution is ready: true

The solution is:

[[true, false, true], [false, true, false]]

Solution is successful: false

>

The specification for our class Solution is as follows. First, it has two constructors:

• Solution(int width, int height): creates an instance of Solution for a board of size widthxheight. That solution does not have any board position value explicitly specified
• Solution(Solution other): creates an instance of Solution which is the same as the one received as a param- eter. It will be for a board of the same dimension, and the same board positions are specified, with thesame values. In other words, the new instance is a deep copy of the instance other. See Appendix A.

Each Solution has the following instance methods:

• void setNext(boolean nextValue): specifies the “next” value of the solution  to  nextValue.  The  first  call  to  setNext specifies the value of the board location (1,1), the second call specifies the value of the board location (2,1) etc.   On a nxm board,  the nth  call to setNext specifies the value of the board location (1,2).   If setNext        is called more times than there are positions on the board, an error message is printed out and the call is ignored.
• boolean isReady():returns true if the solution has been entirely specified, false
• boolean isSuccessful(): returns true if the solution is completely specified and is indeed working,  that is,  if  it will bring a board of the specified dimensions from being entirely “off” to being entirely“on”.
• boolean equals(Object other): returns true if and only the parameter other is referencing an instance of a Solution which is the “same” as this instance of Solution. Make sure that your implementation is as reliable as possible and handle all possiblecases1.
• String toString(): returns a String representation of the

Note that you need to implement the class Solution “from scratch”, so you are not allowed to use java.util.ArrayList

or any other non-built-in element of Java in that particular class.

## 1.2 ArrayListSolutionQueue

The class ArrayListSolutionQueue implements the interface SolutionQueue, which is provided. In this case, this is a special “Queue” which handle only objects that are an instance of the class Solution (we will see later in the semester how to wave such a restriction and have an implementation that works safely with any objects).

The interface is defined as follows:

ArrayListSolutionQueue is an implementation of that interface which relies on an instance of ArrayList. For this, it uses the following instance variable:

• ArrayList<Solution>queue

It has the following methods:

• ArrayListSolutionQueue: the constructor of the
• void enqueue(Solution value): the implementation of the method enqueue from the interfaceSolutionQueue.
• Solution dequeue(): the implementation of the method dequeue from the interfaceSolutionQueue.
• ```public i n t e r f a c e SolutionQueue {

boolean isEmpty ( ) ;

void enqueue ( S o l u t i o n s ) ; S o l u t i o n dequeue ( ) ;

}```

boolean isEmpty(): the implementation of the method isEmpty from the interfaceSolutionQueue.

1Because that method will be used in automated tests, you need to make sure that it works well, even if your own code doesn’t use it.

#### 1.3 LightsOut

The class LightsOut is the one finding all the solutions. The technique used to find these solutions is known as a Breadth-First Search. It uses a Queue in which partial solutions are stored. At each iteration, the partial solution at the front of the queue is removed from the queue. The algorithm checks if that solution is in fact complete. If it is complete, it checks if it is correct (if it works as a solution), and if so it records it, else it discards it. If the solution is not complete, then the algorithm extends that solution in every possible way. Each newly extended solution is enqueued at the back of the queue. The algorithm starts with a single, completely unspecified solution in the queue, and stops once the queue is empty.

For this assignment, the queue that you use should be an instance of the class ArrayListSolutionQueue which you need to provide. The set of Solution objects found by the algorithm are themselves stored directly in an ArrayList (not a Queue). Here is a sketch of the method solve, which uses a Breadth-First Search to find all the solutions of the game Lights Out for a board of size widthxheight.

```Result: The list of all valid solutions for a widthxheight board.

Create a queue partialSolutions and an ArrayList instance solutions;

Initialize partialSolutions to contain a solution for a widthxheight board in which no position is specified;

while partialSolutions is not empty do

Take  the front element out of the partialSolutions queue, call this current;  if current is fully specified and correct then

add current to solutions; else

foreach possible extension of current do

add the extension to rear of the queue partialSolutions; end

end end

return solutions;```
• ArrayList<Solution> solve(int width, int height): The method solve finds all the solutions to the Lights Out gamefor an initially completely “off” board of size widthxheight, using a Breadth-First Search  It returns an ArrayList containing all the valid solutions to the problem.

During the computation of the solution, the method prints out a message each time a new solution is found, along with the total time it took (in milliseconds) to find that solution.

• main:Create a main method which calls the method solve and then prints out the number of solutions found, as well as the details of each

The width and height used by the main are passed as runtime parameters to the program. If no runtime parameters are passed to the program, or if the parameters are incorrect, then a default value of 3 for both width and height is used.

A few sample runs of the program are shown in Appendix B.

#### 2 Second Implementation [30 Marks]

Our first solution works well on very small board, but quickly becomes unusable with slightly larger boards2.

We can easily optimize our code by remarking that once a solution is sure to fail, there is no point in continuing to extend it to the end. That solution can be dropped immediately.

Note that we build our solution systematically, working from left to right, top to bottom. So the positions that are above the “working line” have their neighbourhood already completely specified. If the conditions for a working solution are not met for these positions, then these conditions will not be met for any completed versions of that solution and that solution can be readily abandoned.

We modify our class Solution to add the following method:

2Can you figure out why the solution takes so much time as soon as the board contains more than a few positions?

• public boolean stillPossible(boolean nextValue):  this  method  returns  false  if  the  current  solution  would be impossible to finalize into a working solution, should it be extended from its current state with the value nextValue.

Note that the method returns false if extending the current solution with nextValue would never  yield  a  working solution, and true otherwise. Returning true does not mean that the solution can necessarily be extended into a working solution. It merely means that we do not yet know if it is still possible.

Note as well that this method should not modify the state of the object instance of Solution on which it       is called. It does not extend that solution with nextValue, it simply indicates if such an extension would annihilate its chance of leading to a working solution.

.

You need to modify the method solve of the class LightsOut to take benefit of the method stillPossible and

provide a more efficient implementation.

A few sample runs of the updated program are shown in Appendix C.

#### 3 (Bonus Question) Third Implementation [10 marks]

An even more efficient implementation can be easily achieved. For this, we need to remark that once a solution can only be extended one way and remain a possibly valid solution, it will never be extendable two ways after that. In other words, if a partial solution can only be extended by either true or false and remain a possible solution, but not by both true and false and remain a possible solution, then no extension of that solution which can still yield a correct solution can be extended by both true and false either. Once a solution as only one way to be extended into a possible solution, it will remain that way until it either yield a solution, or it is shown not to lead to a workable solution.

We can leverage this information in our search for solutions: in our breadth-first search, once a solution is locked into a single alternative mode (it can be possibly extended, but only one way) then we do not need to keep using our breadth-first search with it. We know that at that point that solution will only be extendable into a series of unique next solutions, with no alternatives along the way, so we can simply extend that solution “to the end” and see if we reach a working solution or not. This will save many queue operations and should make our program more efficient.

To achieve this, we modify our class Solution to add the following method:

• public boolean finish(): this method assumes that solution is currently still extendable, but only one It keepsextending that solution with the one correct way that it finds at each step, until the solution is complete and correct, or shown to not be work. It returns true if and only if the solution is extended into a complete, working solution.

That method does change the state of the object instance of Solution on which it is called. If it returns true, then that instance is now a complete, working solution.

As you implement this method, pay attention to special cases regarding the dimensions of the board.

.

You need to modify the method solve of the class LightsOut to use the method finish whenever it can and

provide a more efficient implementation.

A few sample runs of the updated program are shown in Appendix D.

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• It is your responsibility to make sure that BrightSpace has received your assignment. Late submissions will not be

### Files

You must hand in a zip file (no other file format will be accepted). The name of the top directory has to have the following form: a2_3000000_3000001, where 3000000 and 3000001 are the student numbers of the team members submitting the assignment (simply repeat the same number if your team has one member). The name of the folder starts with the letter “a” (lowercase), followed by the number of the assignment, here 2. The parts are separated by the underscore (not the hyphen). There are no spaces in the name of the directory. The archive a2_3000000_3000001.zip contains the files that you can use as a starting point. Your submission must contain the following files.

• txt

– A text file that contains the names of the two partners for the assignments, their student ids, section, and a short description of the assignment (one or two lines).

• `01/ArrayListSolutionQueue.java`
• `01/SolutionQueue.java`
• `01/Solution.java`
• `01/LightsOut.java`
• `01/StudentInfo.java`
• `02/ArrayListSolutionQueue.java`
• `02/SolutionQueue.java`
• `02/Solution.java`
• `02/LightsOut.java`
• `02/StudentInfo.java`

If you are also answering to the third question, then your submission must also contain the following files:

• 03/ArrayListSolutionQueue.java
• 03/SolutionQueue.java
• 03/Solution.java
• 03/LightsOut.java
• 03/StudentInfo.java

# Questions

For all your questions, please visit the Piazza Web site for this course:

• https://piazza.com/uottawa.ca/winter2019/iti1121/home

# A Shallow copy versus Deep copy

As you know, objects have variables which are either a primitive type, or a reference type. Primitive variables hold a value from one of the language primitive type, while reference variables hold a reference (the address) of another object (including arrays, which are objects in Java).

If you are copying the current state of an object, in order to obtain a duplicate object, you will create a copy of each of the variables. By doing so, the value of each instance primitive variable will be duplicated (thus, modifying one of these values in one of the copy will not modify the value on the other copy). However, with reference variables, what will be copied is the actual reference, the address of the object that this variable is pointing at. Consequently, the reference variables in both the original object and the duplicated object will point at the same address, and the reference variables will refer to the same objects. This is known as a shallow copy: you indeed have two objects, but they share all the objects pointed at by their instance reference variables. The Figure 5 provides an example: the object referenced by variable b is a shallow copy of the object referenced by variable a: it has its own copies of the instances variables, but the reference variables title and time are referencing the same objects.

Often, a shallow copy is not adequate: what is required is a so-called deep copy. A deep copy differs from a shallow copy in that objects referenced by reference variable must also be recursively duplicated, in such a way that when the initial object is (deep) copied, the copy does not share any reference with the initial object. The Figure 6 provides an example: this time, the object referenced by variable b is a deep copy of the object referenced by variable a: now, the reference variables title and time are referencing different objects. Note that, in turn, the objects referenced by the variable time have also been deep copied. The entire set of objects reachable from a have been duplicated.

Figure 5: An example of a shallow copy of objects.

Figure 6: An example of a deep copy of objects.

You can read more about shallow versus deep copy on Wikipedia:

• Objectcopying

# B Sample Runs, question 1

Here are some sample runs with the solution from question 1

```> java LightsOut 2 2 Solution found in 1 ms

**** [[true,true],

[true,true]]```

In a board of 2×2: 1 solution.

```> java LightsOut 3 2 Solution found in 0 ms Solution found in 0 ms Solution found in 0 ms Solution found in 0 ms

**** [[true,true,false],

[true,true,false]]

**** [[true,false,false],

[false,false,true]]

**** [[false,true,true],

[false,true,true]]

**** [[false,false,true],

[true,false,false]]```

In a board of 3×2: 4 solutions.

`> java LightsOut 4 4`
 `Solution` `found` `in` `310` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `339` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `363` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `392` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `425` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `452` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `477` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `492` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `505` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `520` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `535` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `545` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `549` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `557` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `560` `ms` `Solution` `found` `in` `561` `ms`
```**** [[true,true,true,true],

[true,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false]]

**** [[true,true,true,false],

[true,false,true,false], [true,false,true,false], [true,true,true,false]]

**** [[true,true,false,true],

[true,true,true,false],

[false,true,true,true], [true,false,true,true]]

**** [[true,true,false,false],

[true,true,false,true], [false,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true]]

**** [[true,false,true,true],

[false,true,true,true], [true,true,true,false], [true,true,false,true]]

**** [[true,false,true,false],

[false,true,false,false], [true,false,true,true], [false,false,true,true]]

**** [[true,false,false,true],

[false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,false], [false,true,true,false]]

**** [[true,false,false,false],

[false,false,true,true], [false,false,true,true], [true,false,false,false]]

**** [[false,true,true,true],

[false,true,false,true], [false,true,false,true], [false,true,true,true]]

**** [[false,true,true,false],

[false,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true]]

**** [[false,true,false,true],

[false,false,true,false], [true,true,false,true], [true,true,false,false]]

**** [[false,true,false,false],

[false,false,false,true], [true,false,false,false], [false,false,true,false]]

**** [[false,false,true,true],

[true,false,true,true], [false,true,false,false], [true,false,true,false]]

**** [[false,false,true,false],

[true,false,false,false], [false,false,false,true], [false,true,false,false]]

**** [[false,false,false,true],

[true,true,false,false], [true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,true]]

**** [[false,false,false,false],

[true,true,true,true], [true,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true]]```

In a board of 4×4: 16 solutions.

```> java LightsOut Solution found in 1 ms

**** [[true,false,true],

[false,true,false], [true,false,true]]```

In a board of 3×3: 1 solution.

```>  java  LightsOut  -12  0

Invalid width, using default... Invalid height, using default... Solution found in 1 ms

**** [[true,false,true],

[false,true,false], [true,false,true]]```

In a board of 3×3: 1 solution.

```> java  LightsOut  5  4 Solution found in 159456 ms

**** [[false,true,true,true,false],

[false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false]]  In a board of 5x4: 1 solution.```

### C Sample Runs, question 2

Here are some sample runs with the solution from question 2

```> java LightsOut 5 4 Solution found in 0 ms

**** [[false,true,true,true,false],

[false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false]]```

In a board of 5×4: 1 solution.

```> java LightsOut 5 5 Solution found in 2 ms Solution found in 2 ms Solution found in 2 ms Solution found in 2 ms

**** [[true,true,false,false,false],

[true,true,false,true,true], [false,false,true,true,true], [false,true,true,true,false], [false,true,true,false,true]]

**** [[true,false,true,true,false],

[false,true,true,true,false], [true,true,true,false,false], [true,true,false,true,true], [false,false,false,true,true]]

**** [[false,true,true,false,true],

[false,true,true,true,false], [false,false,true,true,true], [true,true,false,true,true], [true,true,false,false,false]]

**** [[false,false,false,true,true],

[true,true,false,true,true], [true,true,true,false,false], [false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false]]    In a board of 5x5: 4 solutions.```
```> java LightsOut 10 10 Solution found in 28 ms

**** [[true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true],

[false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false], [true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true], [false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false], [false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false], [false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false], [false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false], [true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true], [false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false], [true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true]]      In a board of 10x10: 1 solution.```
```> java LightsOut 13 13 Solution found in 896 ms

**** [[true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true],

[true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true], [false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false], [true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,false], [true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true]]```

In a board of 13×13: 1 solution.

```> java LightsOut 14 14 Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5912 ms Solution found in 5913 ms Solution found in 5913 ms

**** [[true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false],

[true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false]]

**** [[true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true],

[true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true],

[false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false], [true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true], [true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true], [false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false]]

**** [[true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false],

[true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true], [false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true], [false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false], [true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true], [true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true]]

**** [[true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true],

[true,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false], [false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true], [false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false], [false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true]]

**** [[true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false],

[false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true], [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false], [true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true]]

**** [[true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true],

[false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true],

[true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false], [true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true]]

**** [[true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false],

[false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true], [false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true], [false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true], [true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true], [false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false]]

**** [[true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true],

[false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false], [true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false], [false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false]]

**** [[false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false],

[false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false], [false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true], [false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false], [true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true]]

**** [[false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true],

[false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true],

[true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true], [false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true]]

**** [[false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false],

[false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false], [true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false], [true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false], [false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true], [false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true], [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false]]

**** [[false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true],

[false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false], [true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false], [false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false], [false,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false], [true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false]]

**** [[false,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false],

[true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false], [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false], [false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true], [true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false], [false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false], [false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true], [false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false]]

****

[[false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,false], [false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false], [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,true], [false,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,true], [false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false]]

**** [[false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false],

[true,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true], [true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true], [false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true]]

**** [[false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true],

[true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true], [true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false], [true,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true]]       In a board of 14x14: 16 solutions.```
```> java LightsOut 15 15 Solution found in 26463 ms

**** [[true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true],

[false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true],

[false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true]]```

In a board of 15×15: 1 solution.

>

# D Sample Runs, question 3

Here are some sample runs with the solution from question 3

```> java LightsOut 15 15 Solution found in 329 ms

**** [[true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true],

[false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false], [false,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [true,true,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,true,true], [false,true,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true]]```

In a board of 15×15: 1 solution.

```>java LightsOut 15 25 Solution found in 451 ms

**** [[false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false],

[false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false], [true,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,true], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false], [true,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,true], [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,true], [true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true], [true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true,false,true], [true,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true], [false,true,false,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,false,true,false], [true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true], [true,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,true], [false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false], [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,true], [false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false], [false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false]]```

In a board of 15×25: 1 solution.

```> java LightsOut 18 18 Solution found in 13624 ms

**** [[true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true],

[true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true],

[false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false], [true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false], [true,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,true], [true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true], [true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false], [true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true], [true,false,false,false,true,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,true,false,false,false,true], [true,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,true], [false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false], [true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true], [false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false], [true,true,true,false,true,true,false,true,false,false,true,false,true,true,false,true,true,true], [true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true]]```

In a board of 18×18: 1 solution.

```> java LightsOut 20 20 Solution found in 195372 ms

**** [[true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,tru

[false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false, [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false, [false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,fal [false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,f [true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true, [true,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,true [true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false, [true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true [true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true [true,false,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,false,true [true,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,true [true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false, [true,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,true [true,true,true,false,false,true,false,false,false,true,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,true,true, [false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,true,false,false,true,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,f [false,false,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,true,false,true,false,true,true,true,false,fal [true,false,true,true,false,true,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,true,false,true,true,false, [false,true,false,false,false,true,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,true,false,false,false, [true,false,true,false,false,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,true,false,false,true,false,true      In a board of 20x20: 1 solution.```

5 (1 票)