Professional Skills and Ethics
Module Leader: Dr Thomas Hoyland
UNIVERSITY OF HULL
assignment写作格式 Cultural diversity concentrates on the differences and correspondences that people establish in a given organization;
Professional Skills and Ethics
There has been increasing demand for professional skills in different industries around the world. This call for research into the way professional skills can be developed in order to meet the global market demand for professionals with high-level skills. Therefore, this paper will focus on examining the demand for continual professional skills development in a global context. It will also gather empirical and theoretical evidence, which will be analysed to discern elements that influence the development of professional skills in a global context. Moreover, this report will present and elaborate the application of theory in professional skills and ethics based on personal and professional development. It will also entail a personal explanation concerning the ideas gathered, personal development needs that have been recognized, and plans to bridge personal development gaps.
Part A: Demand for Continual Professional Skills Development in a Global Context
Increasing demand for continual professional skills development in a global context has called for the implementation of various leadership styles, such as coaching. In this case, employee skills are developed to meet this demand-based individuals learning style. In the process of developing professional skills, organizations prefer coaching as a leadership style for managing the workforce (Carlopio & Andrewartha, 2012). The coaching leadership style is regarded as substantial in organizations as a leadership strategy aimed at improving the organization’s overall performance (Daft & Pirola-Merlo, 2009). The leadership style of coaching is considered a partnership-centred leadership for the achievement of objectives. This leadership’s style is focused on the development of the employees who are being coached. assignment写作格式
Coaching is applicable to numerous situations of management, especially when seeking to facilitate and identify strengths and weaknesses among employees (Plunkett, Egan & Garza, 2004). On the other hand, this leadership style has other features, such as the identification of motivation factors, team building, the provision of feedback, delegation, and the resolving of challenges in order to increase the awareness of the employees (Jones & Schilling, 2000).
Conversely, skills development requires a focus on the changes in employees’ behaviours, whereby they eliminate those that are problematic in order to focus on the opportunity for growth and improvement in the organization (Brannick & Levine, 2002). Coaching leadership requires a focus on identifying the way people process the information given to them. This paves the way for communicating effectively in the provision of instructions, feedback, issuing assignments, and motivating employees in order for them to achieve more in the organization (Eunson, 2008).
In the process of professional skills development, there are different means through which employees understand and perceive information in accordance with their learning style.
There are also different types of learning styles, which can be applied in the process of coaching employees in order to foster their effective understanding of information. There is a group of employees referred to as the visual learners (Kezar, 2001).
They are more likely to respond positively to the instruction manuals, visual timelines, progress charts for feedback and the strategic plans that are produced. They are highly motivated by charting progress that occurs in groups. They also respond well to details that are visuals in order to understand quickly. Therefore, the coaching leader should consider giving them written information and they should be referred for additional reading to the sources of information. assignment写作格式
The other group of employees is referred to as the verbal learners, who respond favourably to instructions that are given through verbal means. This can also involve discussing matter in debates and asking questions (Brannick & Levine, 2002). Therefore, there is a form of motivation that is involved when these employees receive feedback verbally, such as when they are asking and answering questions, being praised or when healing about their progress. Therefore, the leaders should ensure that they deliver information to them through, lectures, conferences, and verbal coaching in order to give them a chance to respond.
The other group is referred to as kinesthetic learners, who are very responsive to the demonstration of the idea being discussed.
This involves the process of being taken step by step through project and being given the chance to see presentation of the findings (Abbott & Godinho, 2004). They are highly motivated by the chance to participate in group presentations, as they can play a role in the situation. Therefore, leaders should consider giving them a form of demonstration of the points they have accomplished. The leaders should also foster the participation of the employees in a group presentation in order for them to respond favourably to the demonstrations (Abbott & Godinho, 2004). assignment写作格式
Coaching leaders should have a profound background in the numerous learning styles of employees in order to focus on the modification of the behaviours of the team’s interactions and, in this way, each member of the organization is communicated with effectively (Plunkett et al., 2004). The help that is offered to them to succeed in improving their skills will in turn help to achieve the organization’s objectives.
The other way through which professional skills can be developed is active listening, which is considered a structured way in which one can listen to someone and involving a quiet mind; in fact, this listening requires the cultivation of specific skills (Thomas, 2000).
However, in order to be considered an active listener, there is no need to have any form of agreement with someone. Communication involves more than just the act of having a conversation with another person (Eunson, 2008). Communication means more than just talking due to the need to listen; in fact, some other qualities are required in order to have an active listening session (Davenport & Borrow, 2009).
Professional skills development requires a listener to look at the person who is talking without doing anything else that could cause a distraction. This also involves listening to what is beyond the words that are being used by the person who is talking. There is the need to pay intense attention to tone variation with the emotions of the individual; in fact, the listener is also urged to be captivating during a conversation with the other person.
There is a need to restate the ideas that are being mentioned by the other party in order to facilitate the full understanding of the ideas.
These skills can also be acquired through dialogue, which is considered a methodology that involves the use of skills and processes in order to foster a critical conversation with another person (Cornell University ILR School, 2010). It is used for sharing ideas, and provides different views, beliefs, interests and ideas. Moreover, this process focuses on deepening understanding in the process of dialogue without debate or persuasion being involved. The participants seek to derive their ideas from their own experience of the topic presented by the person referred to as the facilitator. assignment写作格式
Dialogue has been used to facilitate the sharing of perspectives among different individuals in order to develop professional skills in the situation of a conflict. Dialogue is also applied in the achievement of change; in fact, this process calls for a skilled facilitator considered as a third party in the dialogue (Kezar, 2001). This facilitator is a person who has no direct stake in the issues that are involved in the dialogue. The person should also be without bias in the issue in order to ensure that the dialogue is conducted effectively and the professional skills of conflict resolution are acquired successfully.
Part B: Conflict Management assignment写作格式
Employees engaging in any form of interaction based on business, financial or personal relationships are bound to act in the best interests of the company. Therefore, interference in this obligation from private or pecuniary relationship leads to disagreements that occur in the organization. Moreover, this relates to a situation, where people could use their position in the company for the purpose of personal gain. On the other hand, there are situations where a company requires employees to disclose conflicts of interest in order to take the necessary measures for eliminating them (Bolton, 1998).
‘Conflict management’ is a phrase used to refer to the effort that is involved in dealing with the foundation sources that have caused a conflict. The confluence of emotion and rationality is considered critical dimensions in the entire decision-making process and, ultimately, what makes us human. This process is followed in order to eliminate or prevent conflicts from escalating or getting out of control (Bolton, 1998).
The resolution of conflict focuses on solving differences that are involved in a particular issue through an optimal and just way for parties involved.
Therefore, this process requires there to be a mediator in order to focus on the way to meet the demand of the parties in the conflict by negotiating; besides, negotiations are aimed at ensuring that interests are met in a way that means that the parties are content (Thompson, 2001).
In order to resolve a situation that involves a conflict between employers and employees, there is a need to understand the frame of reference, which refers to a person’s perspective on the world. A frame of reference entails assumptions, values, beliefs and convictions concerning the occurrence of events and this has a substantial effect on people’s judgement and subsequent behaviours. assignment写作格式
These factors are considered in situations of dealing with issues related to contentious and substantial opinions in employment relations. Therefore, the frames of reference are applied as substantial tools used in establishing people’s behaviours in employment relations. Moreover, employees have perspectives that influence the methods to be employed in managing and moulding the behaviours of employees in order to deal with conflicts (Cialdini, 2000). An organization is similar to a team, whereby it has goals and objectives, and management is deemed to be a source of authority, hence managerial prerogative is considered rational for employment relations (Quinn, el at., 2011).
Team working assignment写作格式
According to Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis (2005), there are various reasons for forming a team in an organization. Based on evolutionary perspective of professional skills development, there is an importance to forming a group rather than working alone. Therefore, the significance of forming a group is critical its survival and substantial to psychological development. The other necessity of forming a group is that of being part of a group to bring about a sense of belonging.
A sense of belonging facilitates the achievement of objectives beyond individual powers, and this is perceived in terms of teamwork (Jones & Schilling, 2000). The manager is expected to design teams in order to cultivate the feelings of the employees (Quinn, Faerman, Thompson & Clair, 2011). Groups of employees have an insightful influence upon the behaviour of individuals. In fact, employees can raise their performance in the presence of others in the organization; this is referred to as social facilitation. Therefore, the change that occurs in an individual’s behaviour is collectively experienced at the organizational level. Consequently, when a group affect the individuals in the organization, they affect the organization at large (Clegg et al., 2005).
The groups at work have a substantial influence on workers’ disposition and their well being (Cialdini, 2000).
This creates the chance for managers to foster collaboration within informal groups in order to create cohesiveness and unity at work. For example, groups have a mechanism for absorbing shock that may be caused by an accident in the organization, compared to the individual worker. Therefore, from this perspective, managers can use the group of teams in order to leverage large-scale system changes in the organization (Ajmal, Farooq, Noman & Awan, 2013).
For the team leader, there is the, need to set dates for checking progress with the other members of the team in order to facilitate its development. Moreover, this helps to maintain the cohesiveness of the group and ensure that everyone is behaving in accordance with the expectations of the group members. A leader should have specific traits to facilitate team development; in fact, these traits are elaborated based on leadership theories (Daft & Pirola-Merlo, 2009). assignment写作格式
One of these traits is contingency theories, which expects successful leaders to be able to identify the clues in the environment. Besides, they adapt their leadership behaviour in order to meet the differentiated needs of their followers. The third trait is transformational leadership, which combines behavioural theories with trait theories, while being a transactional leader means guiding a group in the direction that will establish objectives by clarifying task requirements.
Coaching offers an impetus for developing and motivating groups, thereby fostering organizational change (Fernandez & Rainey, 2006).
On the other hand, group coaching leads to the establishment of a team that functions in a business network. For instance, a team can be asked to brainstorm various alternatives in order to agree a way to formulate a plan. Furthermore, coaching has enabled groups to develop a set of rules that are acceptable to their members, thereby enabling them to work on a given agenda.
Nonetheless, this call for regular meetings, where group members establish social time that is spent in order to achieve their objectives. The coach of a certain group sets the coaching process in the context of an organization situation based on the needs of the agenda and the resources that are available. Moreover, this has led to the establishment of groups based on various factors, such as coaching in the appropriate format and identifying sufficient resources that support these approaches. Groups support change through the establishment of ways to assess, benchmark, report and offer feedback to their members (Ajmal, Farooq, Noman & Awan, 2013). assignment写作格式
The management of talent can also help team leaders in the process of formulating a team through an assessment of employees in contention for membership of a team, in order to determine whether they possess the relevant skills. Organizations may expand due to the use of a team, thus evaluating candidates for their skills is relevant to the method of assortment for positioning in the future (Honey, 2001). In this case, forming a team requires professionals to be aware of the skills and competencies that are to be demonstrated by an assessment of potential leaders, in a situation whereby they currently possess the skills or they will develop them due to additional training.
There are expectations that teams should be powerful in terms of communication through facial cues, body language, indicators and voice intonation, whereby the modulation of face-to-face communication is lost in technological communication (Davenport & Borrow, 2009).
Therefore, teams are in distinct locations and they are expected to meet through an interaction that develops relationships in an effective way that accomplishes impersonal methods. Moreover, there are expectations, which are easier through the choice of personnel that are not restricted by geographical considerations.
Therefore, efforts can involve videoconferencing, whereby the communication method can facilitate choosing the most appropriate members, despite the location, without cost. Self-managed teams should focus on their composition, whereby they should be multi-skilled, with a high social and growth need (Honey, 2001). There is a need to focus on the processes of joint decision making, the coordination of efforts, and conflict resolution (Munro, 2012). Self-managed teams focus on utilizing organizational support systems; thus, this focuses on team-based objectives, appraisal and rewards. The team should also focus on social and technical training, team-based performance measures, and selection for a team and high-involvement culture.
Cultural issues assignment写作格式
Cultural diversity concentrates on the differences and correspondences that people establish in a given organization; this definition also entails dimensions beyond the specified legally affirmative action of non-discrimination (Knippenberg, de Dreu & Homan, 2004). The issue of diversity includes everyone in the work place. In various ways, its initiative complements the compliance programme involving non-discrimination. This is through the creation of an organization culture of developing different work and workplace environments. There are also practices the encourage learning to establish the advantages associated with a diverse perspective.
The diversification in a workforce is depicted in the dynamic world and market place; in fact, there is high level of benefit that is associated with diversity in the work place (Knippenberg, de Dreu & Homan, 2004). There is also a benefit to upholding the respect for individuals in the work place through establishing a competitive edge for improving the organization’s productivity. assignment写作格式
A management that embraces diversity has the benefits associates with the development of a fair environment for everyone’s accessibility to the challenges and opportunities (Flagg, 2002). Workplace diversity is integrated with the managing tools that are relevant to ways of educating employees about the laws and, regulations (Devoe, 1999); given the fact that numerous organizations have diverse cultures and there is a great need to embrace these guidelines.
On the other hand, there is an organizational culture that refers to norms of behaviour, work attitude, and morals, which oversees the behaviours in the organization.
Moreover, it is considered a structural and cultural feature of the organization, upon which the implementation of human resource (HR) policies can be based. In this case, despite the declaration of HR policies an integral component of its structure, there is a need to encourage the acceptance and appropriate utilization of the HR policies in the organization.
There is the chance that some departments in an organization might fail to understand the need for implementing HR policies. On the other hand, there might be requests to reform policies that lead to the wastage of valuable time and resources in the organization. In fact, this may involve requests for information which is redundant and with unreasonable results after implementation. In this case, the policies should be formulated in a way that they conform to the organizational culture in order to avoid confusion among employees. Moreover, formulating HR policies that are compatible with an organization’s culture can facilitate the implementation process. assignment写作格式
Issues regarding the reform, implementation and removal of certain HR policies in an organization are communicated in terms of employees’ needs.
There are situations where there are uncertainties regarding the requirements in an organization; thus, this creates a need to build extensive information networks within the organization (Kelly, 2009).
These information networks are expected to offer a way of meeting employees’ needs based on organizational culture. On the other hand, there are situations where employees are polarized by their perceptions towards the HR policies in the organization. For that reason, an aspect of the organization that contributes to the implementation of the policies is the culture, although there are cultural obstacles to the process of implementing the HR policies (Munro, 2012). These cultural obstacles are overcome through the effort to achieve set objectives in the organization and the involvement of employees.
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