迷幻药的影响代写 Psychedelics, also referred to as hallucinogens are a category of drugs that drastically alter perception and consciousness.
Psychedelics and Their Effects on the Senses and Perception 迷幻药的影响代写
Psychedelics, also referred to as hallucinogens are a category of drugs that drastically alter perception and consciousness. Unlike cocaine or heroin, psychedelics like psilocybin, N, N – Dimethyltryptamine, LSD, mescaline, ibogaine, and are neither habit-forming nor physically harmful. Yet they are regard as dangerous, alarming, and usually proscribed. The phrase psychedelic, meaning, mind-manifesting, was invented in the 1950s during a brief fervor for chemical self-discoveries. It followed that in the mid-1960s, these substances were proscribed, and the mainstream trend for consciousness development ended abruptly.迷幻药的影响代写
In the following decades, the media reportedly associated psychedelics with wasted human potential, blown minds, as well as social chaos (Beyer 102).
The perception persists that to experiment in psychedelics, is tantamount to risking psychosis. In several shamanic tribal societies, plants that stimulate visions are the core of spiritual tradition and life. Tribes in Siberia, Africa, North and South America, and many different places presume that these plants are supernatural emissaries, or sentient beings. These cultures ascribe their medicine and music. Their cosmology and broad botanical understanding to the visions granted to them in psychedelic spell (Winkelman 209).迷幻药的影响代写
Numerous psychedelics are closely associated to common neurotransmitters or serotonin. Serotonin is alleged to perform scores of functions, such as helping in regulating sensory information. This is in regard to whether sense related data floods, trickles, pours, or flows into the brain. Mescaline, LSD, and Psilocybin are alkaloids that bear a resemblance to serotonin. The highly intoxicating hallucinogen N, N – Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a very close to serotonin. The two have similar molecular structure with the differentiation of two atoms, see figure 1 below. Serotonin Selective Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), like the anti-depressants Zoloft and Prozac, check mood swings by regulating serotonin release. Psychedelics bond to numerous of the identical receptor sites as serotonin and comparable neurotransmitters. This is the principle foundation of their activity (Asher 1133).
Diagram A, depicts the chemical structure of the prototypical phenethylamine psychedelic 3, 4, 5- trimethoxyphenethylamine (mescaline).
Diagram B, depicts the representative tryptamine hallucinogen N, N-dimethyl-4- phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin).
Diagram C, depicts the archetypal ergoline hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (1135).
迷幻药，也称为致幻剂，是一类能彻底改变知觉和意识的药物。与可卡因或海洛因不同，迷幻药如裸盖菇素、N、N – 二甲基色胺、LSD、麦斯卡林、伊波加因，既不会形成习惯，也不会对身体造成伤害。然而，它们被认为是危险的、令人震惊的，并且通常被禁止。迷幻、意思、精神表现这个短语是在 1950 年代对化学自我发现的短暂热情期间发明的。随后，在 1960 年代中期，这些物质被禁止，意识发展的主流趋势戛然而止。
许多迷幻药与常见的神经递质或血清素密切相关。据称血清素具有多种功能，例如帮助调节感官信息。这与感官相关的数据是否泛滥、涓涓细流、倾泻或流入大脑有关。 Mescaline、LSD 和 Psilocybin 是与血清素相似的生物碱。高度令人陶醉的致幻剂 N, N – 二甲基色胺 (DMT) 与血清素非常接近。两者分子结构相似，但有两个原子的区别，见下图1。血清素选择性再摄取抑制剂 (SSRIs)，如抗抑郁药左洛复和百忧解，通过调节血清素释放来检查情绪波动。迷幻剂与许多相同的受体部位结合，如血清素和类似的神经递质。这是他们活动的主要基础（Asher 1133）。
图 A 描绘了原型苯乙胺迷幻剂 3, 4, 5-三甲氧基苯乙胺（美斯卡林）的化学结构。
图 B 描绘了代表性的色胺致幻剂 N，N-二甲基-4-磷酸氧基色胺（裸盖菇素）。
图 C 描绘了原型麦角碱致幻剂麦角酸二乙酰胺 (LSD) (1135)。
HUMAN RESEARCH IN PSYCHEDELICS
In recent times, there has a upgrading of human research in psychedelics (classical hallucinogens). Although psychedelics are not comparatively dangerous physiologically and may be regarded as drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most probable risk is overwhelming anguish during drug activity, which may result in potentially hazardous behavior like as departure from the study site. The less common behavior is prolonged psychoses that would be triggered by the hallucinogens (Topping 22).迷幻药的影响代写
Protection against these dangers includes the ruling out of volunteers with family or personal record of psychotic disorders or related harsh psychiatric disorders, ascertaining trust as well as rapport between session volunteer and monitors and prior to the session, cautious volunteer training, a secure physical session atmosphere, as well as inter-personal support from a minimum of two study monitors in the course of the session. Investigators ought to probe for the moderately rare psychedelic persisting perception confusion in follow up contact. Persistent adverse reactions may be uncommon when research is performed along this procedure. Imprudent research may endanger participant safety as well as future research. However, vigilantly performed research would enlighten the management of psychiatric disorders, and would lead to progress in basic science (Strassman 45).
The administration of psychedelics in humans results in a distinctive profile of outcomes as well as potential unpleasant reactions that require being appropriately addressed so as to maximize safety.
Different threats are related to different classes of drugs, and human research in every class necessitates procedures put in place to deal with those particular threats. For instance,Since high doses of some sedative/hypnotics and opioids may bring about respiratory depression when carrying out research with huge doses of these drugs, it is important to monitor blood oxygen and/or respiration rate.迷幻药的影响代写
It follows that, assistance in mechanical breathing and appropriate medications for rescue are made readily available (Norton 12). As example is that the administration of psychomotor stimulants like cocaine in huge doses can result in cardiac stress. For that reason, electrocardiogram (ECG) readings that may be recorded during screening ought to be scrutinized watchfully, pulse as well as blood pressure is monitored in the course of the sessions. Medication for rescue in the event of acute hypertension ought to be immediately available. In the same way, human psychedelic administration involves its own distinctive risk profile. Sedative/hypnotics, unlike opioids or psychomotor stimulants, the principal safety concerns with psychedelic are in nature, mainly psychological rather than physiological (Boyer 12).
因此，可以随时提供机械呼吸辅助和适当的救援药物（诺顿 12）。例如，大剂量服用可卡因等精神运动兴奋剂会导致心脏压力。出于这个原因，在筛选期间可能记录的心电图 (ECG) 读数应该仔细检查，在会话过程中监测脉搏和血压。发生急性高血压时的抢救药物应立即可用。同样，人类迷幻药的管理涉及其自身独特的风险状况。镇静/催眠药，与阿片类药物或精神运动兴奋剂不同，迷幻药的主要安全问题是本质上的，主要是心理上的而不是生理上的（博耶 12）。
Psychedelic Physiological Toxicity. 迷幻药的影响代写
It is essentials to note that, psychedelics generally possess moderately low physiological toxicity, and do not demonstrate resultant neuropsychological deficits or organ damage. Non-human animal research demonstrate that 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (structurally comparable to various classical psychedelics, but with a considerably special pharmacological mechanism of action) to possess neuro-toxic effects at huge doses, even though MDMA has been considered as secure for human administration in the perspective of some therapeutic as well as basic human research (Strassman 47).迷幻药的影响代写
On the contrary, there is no confirmation of such prospective neuro-toxic effects with the prototypical classical hallucinogens such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. Some physiological signs might occur in the course of hallucinogen action, such as weakness, dizziness, tremors, drowsiness, nausea, paresthesia, dilated pupils, increased tendon reflexes, and blurred vision (Sacks 93). Additionally, psychedelics may reasonably increase pulse, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure. On the other hand, these somatic effects differ and are moderately not noteworthy even at doses that yield dominant psychological effects (cognitive, affective, and perceptual) (Beyer 115).
A complete discussion of the physiological toxicity issues for medical patient populations is outside the scope of this paper, however, a few clarifications are valuable to note. Early studies examining psychedelics in the treatment of depression and anxiety secondary to cancer demonstrated that classical hallucinogens N, N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT) and LSD as physiologically well-tolerated. The physical hostile effects of these agents noted in cancer patients were controllable and comparable to effects seen in physically healthy persons (Asher 1137).
需要注意的是，迷幻药通常具有中等低的生理毒性，并且不会表现出由此产生的神经心理缺陷或器官损伤。非人类动物研究表明，3, 4-亚甲二氧基-N-甲基苯丙胺（结构上与各种经典迷幻药相当，但具有相当特殊的药理作用机制）在大剂量时具有神经毒性作用，即使 MDMA 已被考虑从一些治疗和基础人类研究的角度来看，对于人类给药是安全的（Strassman 47）。
相反，没有证实原型经典致幻剂如 LSD、裸盖菇素和美斯卡林具有这种预期的神经毒性作用。在致幻剂作用过程中可能会出现一些生理症状，例如虚弱、头晕、震颤、嗜睡、恶心、感觉异常、瞳孔扩大、腱反射增加和视力模糊（Sacks 93）。此外，迷幻药可能会合理地增加脉搏，包括舒张压和收缩压。另一方面，这些躯体效应是不同的，即使在产生主要心理效应（认知、情感和知觉）的剂量下也不太值得注意（Beyer 115）。
对医疗患者群体的生理毒性问题的完整讨论超出了本文的范围，但是，有一些澄清值得注意。早期研究迷幻药治疗癌症继发的抑郁症和焦虑症时表明，经典的致幻剂 N、N-二丙基色胺 (DPT) 和 LSD 在生理上具有良好的耐受性。在癌症患者中注意到的这些药物的物理敌对作用是可控的，并且与在身体健康的人中观察到的作用相当（Asher 1137）。
Dependence and Abuse.
Like numerous categories of psychoactive drugs, psychedelics are occasionally used in a way that jeopardizes the well-being or safety of a person or other individuals, for instance driving as one is impaired, a pattern of usage that impedes work, or relationships. In such circumstances psychedelics are regarded as abused. However, psychedelics are not characteristically regarded as drugs of dependence, given that they do not stimulate habitual drug seeking consistent with the study that they are not regularly self-administered in non-human animals.迷幻药的影响代写
Additionally, they are not linked to an identified withdrawal syndrome (Clark 56). For that reason, there is modest danger that administering human volunteers to psychedelics will leave participants psychologically or physically reliant on these compounds. This low addiction potential allows for the likelihood of exposing these compounds to psychedelic-naïve volunteers when blinding concerns are critical. However, in some circumstances it would be beneficial to study psychedelic-experienced participants, for instance studies in brain imaging that require the participant to stay immobile (Boyer 20).
此外，它们与已确定的戒断综合征无关（克拉克 56）。出于这个原因，给人类志愿者服用迷幻药会使参与者在心理或生理上依赖这些化合物的风险不大。这种低成瘾潜力允许在致盲问题至关重要时将这些化合物暴露给迷幻天真的志愿者。然而，在某些情况下，研究有迷幻经验的参与者是有益的，例如要求参与者保持不动的脑成像研究（博耶 20）。
Effects on the Senses and Perception.
Although psychedelics are considered to have moderately low physiological toxicity and cannot be associated with habitual drug, there is apprehension that they might pose additional psychological dangers. The most expected risk connected with psychedelics administration is generally referred to as a bad trip. It is characterized by fear/panic, anxiety, paranoia, and/or dysphoria. Distressing effects might be experienced in a diversity of modalities namely: sensory (terrifying illusions), somatic (alarming physiological processes or hyper-awareness), personal psychological (worrying feelings or thoughts relating to one’s life) as well as metaphysical (disturbing feelings or thoughts relating to ultimate wicked forces) (Strassman 48).迷幻药的影响代写
Since emotional experience regularly deepens when under the influence of a psychedelic, in unprepared persons or unregulated situations some of these effects might possibly escalate to hazardous behavior. For instance, fear as well as paranoid delusions might lead to unpredictable and potentially hazardous behavior, including hostility against self or other persons. Although extremely rare, in dangerous and unsupervised environments, persons under the influence of psychedelics have committed suicide, through acts such as jumping from tall buildings. It is essential to mention that, even under unprepared and unsupervised circumstances, reactions to psychedelics involving self-destructive and violent behavior are rare. Nonetheless, even occasional occurrences of such dangers necessitate investigators to be prepared for such risks and implement steps to circumvent their occurrence (Richards 377).
Another likely risk of psychedelic administration is instigating the onset of protracted psychosis, which would last several days or months. Although establishing causation is complex, it seems that persons who go through such reactions suffer from pre-morbid mental sickness prior to taking psychedelics. Nevertheless, it is indefinite whether the precipitation of neurosis in such vulnerable persons signifies a psychotic effect that might never have occurred without psychedelic use, or whether it signifies a previous commencement of a psychotic break that would have unavoidably occurred. Contrasting to acute psychological distress, such cases will be exceedingly rare in well-chosen and well-trained participants (380).迷幻药的影响代写
In a study of investigators who administered mescaline or LSD it was reported that no more than a single case of psychotic reaction that lasted for more than 48 hours transpired in 1200 investigational (non-patient) research participants, a rate of 0.0008. Conspicuously, the participant was an identical twin to a schizophrenic patient, and consequently would have been disqualified under the projected guidelines.
在对服用美斯卡灵或 LSD 的研究人员进行的一项研究中，据报道，在 1200 名研究性（非患者）研究参与者中，发生的持续超过 48 小时的精神病反应不超过一例，发生率为 0.0008。显然，参与者是精神分裂症患者的同卵双胞胎，因此根据预计的指导方针将被取消资格。
Extended reactions for over 48 hours were a little more regular in patients in psychotherapy than in investigational non-patient participants.
However, still comparatively rare, taking place at a rate of 1.8 extended reactions in 1000 patients (a rate of 0.0018) (Norton 15). The study also demonstrated that suicide attempts, as well as fulfilled suicides took place at a rate of 1.2 and 0.4, correspondingly, in1000 patients. The underlying relationship between psychedelic exposure and suicide attempt or fulfilled suicide was only apparent for a segment of these cases in patients. No suicides or attempted suicides were reported for the 1200 non-patient, investigational participants. On the other hand, it is essential when assessing these data to consider that no more than 44 out of the 62 researchers questioned returned study results (20).迷幻药的影响代写
A number of clinical observations recommend the likelihood that unconscious psychological material might be triggered during psychedelic sessions, and that this material, if not appropriately worked through and psychologically incorporated, may bring about psychological complexity of a non-psychotic nature, for instance negative emotions, as well as psychosomatic symptoms, that would last further than the session. Even though these annotations have not been studied experimentally, they merit consideration (Faber 275).
与研究性非患者参与者相比，接受心理治疗的患者超过 48 小时的延长反应更规律一些。
然而，仍然相对罕见，在 1000 名患者中发生 1.8 次扩展反应（发生率为 0.0018）（诺顿 15）。该研究还表明，在 1000 名患者中，自杀未遂和成功自杀的比率分别为 1.2 和 0.4。迷幻剂暴露与自杀未遂或完成自杀之间的潜在关系仅在患者中的一部分病例中表现出来。 1200 名非患者的研究参与者没有自杀或企图自杀的报告。另一方面，在评估这些数据时，必须考虑到 62 位研究人员中不超过 44 位对返回的研究结果提出质疑 (20)。
Given the weighty effects of psychedelics on perception as well as related subjective variables, an animal model able to assess the mechanisms of action of psychedelics that inform their subjective influence in man may be especially valuable. The major methodology currently utilized is drug discrimination. In a usual discrimination assignment, an animal is trained to release one response in the experimental sessions instigated by the administration of a specific drug, referred to as the training drug, and a dissimilar response in sessions that come after administration of the drug medium.迷幻药的影响代写
In the development of such assessments, a diverse range of responses were typically stimulated, but the largest part of such research now entails discriminative reaction on one of two operant devices, such as nose-poke apertures or levers, maintained by appetitive fortification or shock evasion. Under such contingencies, the injection state, saline versus training drug, for instance, serves as an interoceptive discriminative stimuli to cue the creature as to which reaction will be reinforced in a particular session, in a similar way as the operant conduct of an animal might be directed by exteroceptive stimuli, like colored lights or tones of particular frequencies (Richards 389).
The drug discrimination assessment is consequently fundamentally a drug detection method whereby creatures are trained to distinguish the stimulus effects of a particular dose of a given training drug.
In the course of the tests, well-trained creatures might be administered dissimilar doses of the training drug, or dissimilar doses of a fresh compound assumed to have comparable subjective outcomes to the training drug (Skinner 32). The consequences of such tests produce asymptotic dose-effect curves whereby the administration of a test compound with stimuli properties comparable to the ones of the training drug dose-dependently increase in response on the drug lever.迷幻药的影响代写
Likewise, preceding treatment with a competitive antagonist has a propensity to create parallel rightward shifts in the discrimination dose-effect curves. A resultant measure of this assessment is rate of response. This measure is significant as it presents an integrated positive control which guarantees that behaviorally active dosage of test compounds are attained. As drug dosage rises, operant performance is interrupted. Consequently, in the event that, a test drug falls short of eliciting any drug-appropriate response up to dosages that contain response rates, it may be firmly concluded that the stimuli properties of the test drug cannot overlap with the stimuli properties of the training drug (Faber 276).
Permanent Perceptual Anomalies. 迷幻药的影响代写
Another prospective risk of psychedelic administration is hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD). So as to meet DSM-IV-TR criterion for this anomaly, a psychedelic user should re-undergo perceptual effects comparable to those faced under acute psychedelic action following cessation of psychedelic use. These effects should be clinically stressful or damage functioning, and the effects should not be attributable to a medical state or be better explicated by another psychiatric abnormality or hypnopompic hallucinations.迷幻药的影响代写
The frequency of HPPD is unidentified, though it is considered to be extremely exceptional given the comparatively few cases that are reported. This is in consideration of millions of psychedelic doses used from the 1960s. While the phrase, flashback, is occasionally applied interchangeably with HPPD, the former phrase is regularly applied to describe every short-lived perceptual effect suggestive of acute psychedelic effects but taking place beyond acute psychedelic use, typically without impairment or clinical distress. Indeed, numerous illicit psychedelics users report a few short-lived visual anomalies that take place subsequent to acute psychedelic effects. However, only for a diminutive minority of psychedelic users are such effects worrying or sufficiently impairing to be regarded as clinically important or merit the diagnosis of HPPD (Strassman 50).迷幻药的影响代写
Numerous illicit users of psychedelics consider such sub-clinical effects as pleasurable and benign. Significantly, HPPD incidence or other perceptual anomalies appears to be exceedingly lower in therapeutic or research environments with cautious screening as well as preparation than in the environment of illicit leisure use which might involve the confound of poly-drug use as well as unscreened psychiatric abnormalities. Since such perceptual anomalies are scantily comprehended, researchers administering psychedelics to human volunteers ought to investigate for perceptual disorder in follow up contact (Strassman 52).
迷幻药的另一个潜在风险是致幻剂持续性知觉障碍（HPPD）。为了满足此异常的 DSM-IV-TR 标准，迷幻药使用者应重新经历与停止使用迷幻药后在急性迷幻作用下所面临的感知效果相当的感知效果。这些影响应该是临床压力或损害功能，并且这些影响不应归因于医疗状态或由另一种精神异常或催眠幻觉更好地解释。
HPPD 的频率尚不清楚，但鉴于报告的病例相对较少，它被认为是非常特殊的。这是考虑到 1960 年代使用的数百万种迷幻剂。虽然短语闪回偶尔与 HPPD 互换使用，但前一个短语经常用于描述暗示急性致幻作用但发生在急性致幻剂使用之外，通常没有损伤或临床痛苦的所有短暂感知效应。事实上，许多非法迷幻药用户报告了一些短暂的视觉异常，这些异常是在急性迷幻药效应之后发生的。然而，只有极少数迷幻药使用者才会使这种影响令人担忧或足以削弱，以至于被认为具有临床重要性或值得诊断为 HPPD (Strassman 50)。
许多迷幻药的非法使用者认为这种亚临床效果是令人愉快和良性的。值得注意的是，在谨慎筛选和准备的治疗或研究环境中，HPPD 发生率或其他知觉异常似乎比在可能涉及多种药物使用混淆以及未筛选的精神异常的非法休闲使用环境中低得多。由于对此类知觉异常的了解甚少，因此向人类志愿者施用迷幻药的研究人员应该在后续接触中调查知觉障碍（Strassman 52）。
Cultural Use of Psychedelics.
It is essential to mention that, prior to the influence of modern medical models or expectations, a bewildering and protean rain forest psychedelic known as ayahuasca was regarded by the indigenous people of the Amazon as a diagnostic device. Shamans, as well as their patients would not partake of ayahuasca for therapeutic reasons (Topping 26). On the contrary, they partook of ayahuasca to acquire information.迷幻药的影响代写
This was primarily information relating to the personality of the seducer of an adulterous spouse, the covert connections of a business adversary, or location and character of the evil darts within a person’s body, among other uses. Ayahuasca was applied it to screen the sickness and to explore the treatment, but ayahuasca by itself, does not directly cure anything. The seekers visited the shaman with personal sets of etiological as well as nosological concepts, embedded primarily in trendy psychology as well as and alternative medicine (Winkelman 218).
值得一提的是，在受到现代医学模型或期望的影响之前，亚马逊土著人将一种名为 ayahuasca 的令人眼花缭乱、千变万化的雨林迷幻药视为一种诊断设备。出于治疗原因，萨满和他们的患者不会参与死藤水（Topping 26）。相反，他们使用死藤水来获取信息。
Following a decades-long duration of dormancy in reaction to the sensationalism concerning the non-medical use of psychedelics in the 1960’s, human psychedelic research has taken up again in the medical arena. It is now beginning to deal with a diversity of important fundamental research problems as well as possible therapeutic applications. In the light of the atypical history of limitation on human research with this category of compounds, it is significant for investigators to put into practice appropriate as well as conservative protection. With such protection this category of compounds can be researched safely in human beings.迷幻药的影响代写
Casual research that may lack attention to the distinctive risk profile of psychedelics may not only jeopardize the well-being and safety of research participants, but would also endanger upcoming human research with these scientifically intriguing compounds. In contrast, carefully executed research that values psychedelics’ unique and regularly dominant psychological effects could potentially inform the management of an assortment of psychiatric disorders. It may also lead to considerable advances in the understanding of cognition, perception, the psychology of religion, behavior, as well as the biological foundations of consciousness.
在对 1960 年代关于迷幻药的非医疗用途的耸人听闻的反应长达数十年的休眠之后，人类迷幻药的研究再次进入医学领域。它现在开始处理各种重要的基础研究问题以及可能的治疗应用。鉴于此类化合物对人类研究的限制的非典型历史，研究人员将适当和保守的保护付诸实践具有重要意义。有了这种保护，就可以在人类中安全地研究这类化合物。
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