Cross-Cultural代写 Globalization has enabled the transfer of human resources from one branch to another in different countries.
Case Study Report
Globalization has enabled the transfer of human resources from one branch to another in different countries. As a result, different cultures are transferred to organizations, and hence cross-cultural management becomes essential. Regarding the case study, the Scottish manager was assigned for an assignment in Japan where he was tasked with establishing business partnership with a local firm (Collinson, Narula, Rugman, n.d). Cross-Cultural代写**范文
However, he failed to create alliance with the particular firm, and his company was forced to abandon the expansion. The reason for his failure is his lack of knowledge about Japanese’s attached meaning to meishi. The business card to Japanese is an essential representation of rank and company and hence taken symbolically. The fact that the manager threw them to his contacts was a sign of disrespect. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
The manager did not take time to learn about the Japanese culture that is likely to shape his business engagements. It has become critical, especially in the global economy and increased migration and mobility of labor. It is challenging to managers and organizations in a foreign country like Japan, however, to effectively engage people from different languages, age groups, status, and education as well as culture without proper intercultural skills and understanding.
Reaction to the Case Cross-Cultural代写
Working in a foreign country is not an easy task considering the cultural differences in terms of beliefs, values, and behaviors of workers. One feels out of place with a new environment, especially the language barrier. The experience of the Scottish manager was not any different from that of a stranger. He failed to take time and understand Japanese culture and went ahead to practice his ways of doing business. As a result, he faced resistance from the company representatives who perhaps saw him be not committed or unfit to do business.
Notably, expatriates from Britain should be ready to face the problems of the interaction with the locals. Cross-Cultural代写
It is likely for one to withstand resistance by being a foreigner. His business undertaking was undermined by the communication barriers in the chain of command. He was unable to manage his psychological conflicts and organization culture and requirements. There was fear of being effective in offering services for the interests of the organization in the whole new environment far from home country. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
Moreover, observing work ethics and upholding the organizational standards also seemed challenging to him. In the process of performing his business assignment, the aspect of ethical differences arose and which thwarted his efforts. Cross-cultural learning was required before his Japan deal. His behaviors in the form of beliefs and values came between the management job and the achievement of the organization’s objectives.
Challenges in Cross-Cultural Communications Cross-Cultural代写
In labor-management, the supervisor may be faced with the problem of inaccurate assumptions in meaning (Weijers, 2015). Particularly this problem may arise where the verbal communication accompanied by body language has a different purpose. Different cultures have different ways of combining oral and body language to convey a specific message (Ramjee, 2017).
As a manager, it is essential to learn the various cultures in the office not to assume any meaning hence leading to miscommunication. For instance, when one is in charge supervisor of a group of workers in a department, when giving instructions ask a worker whether he/she understood, and instead of providing a direct answer he/she smiles, the supervisor may judge this reaction as being an affirmation to the question. However, the assumption may be wrong as in some culture this body language may signify that the listener does not understand and therefore want further explanation.
Another issue that faces modern managers is the differences in communication formalities. Cross-Cultural代写
These formalities, if not well understood in the workplace, may bring problems to how people relate. In western cultures, refereeing to business associates is common to use informal language like calling them using the first name, but this might not be acceptable in Japanese culture (Ramjee, 2017). Cross-Cultural代写**范文
Countries in Europe tend to be more formal in business engagements but in Japan, it more culturally defined than formality. In referring to an associate, it is prudent to use, Mr., Mrs., or Dr. along with the family name. Informal cultures are considered disrespectful to refer someone using the first name. In a workplace where there are different cultures, it is advisable to use the most formal language or instead taken time learn the culture in interaction to avoid offending anyone.
Besides the assumption of meaning and communication formality differences, managers likely encounter a problem of misinterpreting the body language. Cross-Cultural代写
Different cultures have different ways of reacting to situations (Ramjee, 2017). Some of these body languages can be confusing and misleading to people new to the culture. For example, eye contact when making communication is one way to show approval and interest to continue with the conversation to engaging the speaker. The culture of eye contact is common in North America. If a person avoids eye contact, according to the culture, he/she is seen suspicious. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
However, in a culture like Japan, Latin America, and the Caribbean, avoiding eye contact is a show of respect. In these cultures, if a young person maintains eye contact with a person older than him/her may be perceived as disrespect or being big-headed. Similarly, it is common to many cultures to have handshake in the workplace regardless of gender, as a way of friendship or closeness or even greetings. Conversely, Islamic culture disapproves of any touching, especially between men and women.
Recommendations and Conclusion
A company or a manager going to Japan must balance its own beliefs, values, and behaviors with organizational requirements. It included foregoing some of the home practices to fit in the current working culture. An organization or a global leader is required to have flexibility, agility, and commitment. According to the case study, the manager practically exhibited these critical characters but was not able to survive the turmoil of ethical conflicts. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
In Japan, where cultural differences exist, the motivation of workers may be a challenging task.
A manager’s capacity to manage cross-cultural differences is vital in managing work and workers’ motivation. It is the responsibility of a leader to create an environment where workers feel motivated to achieve the organization’s goals (Conrad, Ghosh, and Isaacson, 2015). According to Luthra and Dahyia (2015), an effective leader can build a right working environment by his/her ability to communicate change and value to the workers. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
It is because of the inherent and personality variations across the organization, which basically forms the foundation of a relationship with the workers and thus affects the interactions that exist. It is the responsibility of the global leader to be aware of these variations and be able to come up with strategies for building better relationships and working environments to motivate employees.
Therefore, the understanding of the psychology behind the motivation to work is of great importance. Cross-Cultural代写
The global leader or organization understands the culture of the workers to come up with ways of improving their welfare and appreciation of roles in the organization. These approaches will assist the leader to come up with the workers’ incentives and rewards. Getting it wrong in workers’ analysis may lead to ineffective reward and incentive systems, which may lower the worker’s morale. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
Cross-cultural management also looks at workers’ development in terms of compensation and working opportunities. A global leader needs to provide opportunities for workers’ career growth within the organization by delivering achievable metrics for promotions and bonuses. Therefore, holistic work management and motivation need to focus on workers’ culture, incentives and rewards, and compensation and career growth opportunities.
Most importantly, different cultures in different countries affect how customers complaint. Cross-Cultural代写
In Asian countries, people do not like complaining compared to non-Asians. Individualism and collectivism culture predict response behavior. Asians have collectivism complaint behavior and prefer to bad mouth privately (Oetzel, 2017). For instance, if a local bakery served stale bread to a customer in Japan, the customer can channel the complaint to the management for action. Cross-Cultural代写**范文
But can opt not to complain and go to tell everyone how the bakery offers stale and rotten cakes and bread. It is clear depiction of the collectivity culture of complaining that organizations need to be aware and cautious when entering the Asian market like Japan.
The meishi case study provides new insight into adapting to new cultures. Cross-Cultural代写
The organization or the manager needs to be open to learning foreign culture while allowing the co-workers to absorb from their culture. These two ways of learning culture learning and adoption process create bonding and interactions with the workers. It will also help in relationship building with the workers to forge better working conditions for the expatriates.
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Conrad, D., Ghosh, A., and Isaacson, M. (2015). Employee motivation factors. International Journal of Public Leadership, 11(2), pp.92-106.
Collinson, S., Narula, R., Rugman, A.M. ‘Do not throw your Meishi!’ International Business, pp. 152.
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Ramjee, Priti. (2017, September 26). Intercultural Communication Problems in the Workplace. Bizfluent. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-7754347-intercultural-communication-problems-workplace.html
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