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美国经济学论文代写 Purchasing Strategies代写

2021-11-03 14:37 星期三 所属: Essay代写 浏览:30

美国经济学论文代写

Procurement And Purchasing Strategies

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美国经济学论文代写 Refined Bus Ltd can realise improvement in its purchase and procurement activities through applying Kraljik’s ideas to its procurement activities.

Table of Contents

Executive summary…………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Current issues and problems………………………………………………………………………………4

Importance of the tens strategic supplies…………………………………………………………….6

Kraljik Procurement Model………………………………………………………………………………..6

Classification…………………………………………………………………………………………………….7

Market analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………8

Strategic positioning………………………………………………………………………………………….9

Action Plans……………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

Improvement of Service Support Centre (SSC) client demand satisfaction rate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

The tendering process……………………………………………………………………………………..11

Make or buy decisions……………………………………………………………………………………..12

Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………….12

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………..14

 

Executive summary

Redefined Bus Company is a company that makes spares parts for vehicles that were made twenty years ago. The company’s requirement in making these products include aluminium sheets, glass, seating tubular fabrications, doors, carpeting and electronics. Redefined Bus Limited acquires these items through a tendering process.

1.In the process of Redefined Bus Limited carrying out the tendering process, a lot of problems and issues arise that sometimes makes the operations of the company difficult. Some of these problems include delay in supply by the supplier and also a problem of deciding which supplier is best to choose. The company also faces the problem of unavailability of materials. The items it requires may be difficult to get thus leading to delays in the production process.

2.Kraljik’s procurement model; This model that was developed by Peter Kraljik gives the guidelines on how to carry out the procurement process in a way that would bring profitability and quality. The model gives the approaches that should be employed by the management to make the procurement process a success. The Kraljik’s procurement model also shows the importance of suppliers in any procurement process. The suppliers have the power that the purchaser should not undermine as they are the ones who make the procurement process a success.


译文:

执行摘要  美国经济学论文代写

Redefined Bus Company 是一家为二十年前制造的车辆制造备件的公司。该公司生产这些产品的要求包括铝板、玻璃、座椅管状制品、门、地毯和电子产品。 Redefined Bus Limited 通过招标程序获得这些项目。

1.Redefined Bus Limited在进行招标的过程中,会出现很多问题和问题,有时会给公司的运营带来困难。其中一些问题包括供应商延迟供应以及决定选择哪个供应商的问题。该公司还面临着材料不可用的问题。它需要的物品可能很难获得,从而导致生产过程的延误。

2.Kraljik的采购模式;这个由 Peter Kraljik 开发的模型为如何以能够带来盈利和质量的方式执行采购流程提供了指导。该模型给出了管理层应该采用的方法来使采购过程取得成功。 Kraljik 的采购模式也显示了供应商在任何采购过程中的重要性。供应商拥有买方不应削弱的权力,因为他们是使采购过程成功的人。


3.Service support centre: The service support centre is responsible for ensuring customer satisfaction.

The customer service support centre in Redefined Bus Limited has a 67.3% satisfaction rate pegged on them by the customers. The customer service support centre can only achieve this performance rate by involving management in operations, working as per pre-planned schedule with the outlook for a couple of years ahead, with clear cut objectives. The company should also try and incorporate parts for recent models of cars so as to hit the 67.35% satisfaction rate.

4.Tendering process: The tendering process should involve both new and old tendering in the tendering process. Participation of new companies in tendering brings in new products hence there is diversity, and the management can thus choose from those suppliers who will ensure quality of services coupled with profitability.   美国经济学论文代写

5.Make or buy: Make or buy is a decision that many companies have to make. The decision should be guided by several factors like profitability and risks attached to the item being purchased. The company should be careful in making this decision as the profitability and quality of services offered by the company depends on this decision.

6.Recommendations: This part gives several recommendations that the management should put into consideration so as to improve the services offered, as well as their quality and profitability. The recommendations are based on several issues that are of importance in the procurement process and affect the general performance of Redefined Bus Limited.


译文:

3.服务支持中心:服务支持中心负责保证客户的满意度。

Redefined Bus Limited 的客户服务支持中心的客户满意度为 67.3%。客户服务支持中心只有通过让管理层参与运营,按照预先计划的时间表工作,并展望未来几年,并有明确的目标才能实现这一绩效率。公司还应该尝试为最近的汽车型号加入零件,以达到 67.35% 的满意率。

4.招标过程:招标过程中应同时涉及新旧招标。新公司参与招标会带来新产品,因此存在多样性,因此管理层可以从那些能够确保服务质量和盈利能力的供应商中进行选择。

5.制造或购买:制造或购买是许多公司必须做出的决定。该决定应受几个因素的指导,例如盈利能力和与所购买物品相关的风险。公司在做出此决定时应谨慎,因为公司提供的盈利能力和服务质量取决于此决定。

6.建议:这部分给出了管理层应该考虑的几项建议,以改进所提供的服务,以及他们的质量和盈利能力。这些建议基于采购过程中的几个重要问题,并影响 Redefined Bus Limited 的总体绩效。


Current issues and problems

The company, Refined Bus Ltd. Experiences a number of challenges in conducting its production activities. The challenges include slow movement of goods, poor inventory management, and high cost of operation.  The company manufactures many products yet it sells only a few and they do not sell as quickly as they should. This is why it has an inventory production of 96 million yet it only seels 30 million a year.

The company also insures high cost in purchasing in puts from its strategic suppliers.  The company scores poorly in terms of customer’s satisfaction. The satisfaction rate is 67.3%.  The poor customer satisfaction is likely to be the cause of the slow movement of the company’s products. Furthermore, the company produces parts for vehicles manufactured over 20 years ago. Certainly, such vehicles are not many. So only a handful of people own them and a thus likely not to purchase a large number of products that would see Refined Bus Ltd. Inventory move as first as it should and as well as earn the company a good sales level.


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当前的议题和问题  美国经济学论文代写

Refined Bus Ltd. 公司在开展生产活动时遇到了许多挑战。挑战包括货物移动缓慢、库存管理不善和运营成本高。该公司生产许多产品,但只销售少数产品,而且销售速度不如预期。这就是为什么它有9600万的库存产量,但一年只看到3000万。

该公司还确保从其战略供应商处购买投入品的成本很高。该公司在客户满意度方面得分很低。满意率为67.3%。客户满意度不佳很可能是公司产品流动缓慢的原因。此外,该公司还为 20 多年前制造的车辆生产零件。当然,这样的车辆并不多。因此,只有少数人拥有它们,因此可能不会购买大量产品,这些产品将使 Refined Bus Ltd. 库存尽可能首先移动,并为公司赢得良好的销售水平。


The company has 10 strategic suppliers who supply all that the company need.

Theses suppliers account for 80% of the procurement made by the company supplying critical material such as  aluminum sheets, glass, seating, tubular fabrications, doors, carpeting and electronics that are necessary for manufacturing vehicular parts. Although it not clear from the cases study which suppliers supply’s which resource, it is evident that only a handful of supplier are in charge of supplying the company  with crucial resources for manufacturing its products. This certainly give the suppliers a bargaining power over the company and they are thus in charge of the prices they request from the company for their products.  It would have been better if the company had more suppliers which would have allowed it to divide them and conquer in order to get in puts at a reduced price. 美国经济学论文代写

As noted the procurement expenditure is too high.

The company sends over $325 million for only 80% of its purchases, this means that its purchases stand at $407 million which is very high for a company of with a production capacity such as that of Redefined Bus. Certainly, a review of the purchase activities is necessary to help reduce the cost of acquiring input. To a graters extent, this high cost of acquiring inputs is a product of a limited number of strategic suppliers who exert their bargaining power on the company making it part with  more money for the supplies.

Having a small number of supplies means that the company may get into trouble if some suppliers fail to meet their supply responsibility due to their own companies problems or delays. Such delays leave Refined bus with limited option for acquiring the inputs and as such the company may have to halt its production until the suppliers meet their end of the bargain or spend valuable time looking for a new supplier.


译文:

公司拥有 10 家战略供应商,他们供应公司所需的一切。

这些供应商占公司采购的 80%,供应关键材料,如铝板、玻璃、座椅、管状制品、门、地毯和制造车辆零件所需的电子产品。虽然从案例研究中并不清楚哪些供应商供应哪些资源,但很明显只有少数供应商负责为公司提供制造产品的关键资源。这无疑赋予供应商对公司的议价能力,因此他们负责向公司要求的产品价格。如果该公司有更多的供应商,这会更好,这将允许它分而治之,以便以更低的价格获得看跌期权。

如前所述,采购支出过高。

该公司仅为其 80% 的采购支付了超过 3.25 亿美元,这意味着其采购额为 4.07 亿美元,这对于具有 Redefined Bus 等生产能力的公司来说是非常高的。当然,有必要对采购活动进行审查,以帮助降低获取投入的成本。在更大程度上,这种获取投入的高成本是少数战略供应商的产物,他们对公司施加了议价能力,使其为供应提供更多资金。

供应量少,意味着如果一些供应商因为自己公司的问题或延误而未能履行供应责任,公司可能会陷入困境。这种延误使 Refined bus 获得输入的选择有限,因此该公司可能不得不停止生产,直到供应商达成交易结束或花费宝贵的时间寻找新的供应商。


Importance of the tens strategic supplies 

Despite being few, the 10 strategic suppliers are an important asset to the company. In these regard it is important for the company to analyse them, to understand and document their relation, position and significance to the company.  The analysis will use Karljiks procurement model.

美国经济学论文代写
美国经济学论文代写

Kraljik Procurement Model

The Kraljic procurement model is an important tool to procurement and purchases experts or specialists. This model was the brain child of Peter Kraljik who came up with the model in the 1980s. The model was first published in 1983, in an edition of Harvard Business review (Fenson & Edin 2008). Despite having been invested more than two decades ago, the model is still a priceless jewel to many companies around the world that still use it to manage their procurement activities.

Kraljik designed his model specifically to help purchasing and procurement officers to minimise costs while reaping the maximum benefits possible from of their companies purchasing ability and to achieve maximum possible security in the supply lines. This approach transforms procumbent from a simple transactional activity making a critical strategic activity (Fenson & Edin 2008)   美国经济学论文代写

The creator, Keraljik came up with four pertinent classifications within the model. These he referred to as four steps to guide purchasing officer in companies that apply the model (Ackett, Robinson & Statham 2007). Indeed, the four classifications are critical to purchasing officer and have to be observed when making purchases or planning to make purchases.


译文:

十项战略物资的重要性

尽管数量不多,但这 10 家战略供应商是公司的重要资产。在这方面,公司对它们进行分析、理解和记录它们对公司的关系、地位和重要性非常重要。分析将使用 Karljiks 采购模型。

KRALJIK 采购模式

Kraljic 采购模型是采购和采购专家或专家的重要工具。这个模型是 Peter Kraljik 的脑子,他在 1980 年代想出了这个模型。该模型于 1983 年首次发表在《哈佛商业评论》(Fenson & Edin 2008)中。尽管已经在二十多年前进行了投资,但对于世界各地仍然使用它来管理采购活动的许多公司来说,该模型仍然是无价之宝。

Kraljik 专门设计了他的模型,以帮助采购和采购人员最大限度地降低成本,同时从公司的采购能力中获得最大收益,并在供应线中实现最大可能的安全性。这种方法从简单的交易活动转变为关键战略活动(Fenson & Edin 2008)

创建者 Keraljik 在模型中提出了四个相关的分类。他将这些称为指导应用该模型的公司的采购官的四个步骤(Ackett、Robinson 和 Statham,2007 年)。事实上,这四种分类对采购人员至关重要,在采购或计划采购时必须遵守。


Classification

Classification is the first step the must be taken by the purchases. In this state the purchaser classifies the inputs and organisation intend to purchase.  The objective of this step is realised through classifying all the inputs or products that an organisation intends to buy and compiling them into a list. The list is the mailed to the suppliers.

In Refined Bus Compony situation, the list of purchases would include products such as glass, seating tabular fabrications, electronics, carpeting, aluminium sheets, among others. This would all be combined into a list and mailed to the suppliers.  美国经济学论文代写

As Lewis (2009) notes, classification must take into consideration all inherent risks associated with the purchases and the revenue the company stands to generate from each item on the list. The risk and availability of commodity are always directly proportional. When a commodity is hard to come by, the risk associated are also high. According to Bower (2013) the revenue accrued from an input is high if the input has the ability to add enormous value the output or products produced by the company.


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分类  美国经济学论文代写

分类是采购必须采取的第一步。在这种状态下,购买者对打算购买的投入和组织进行分类。这一步的目标是通过对组织打算购买的所有投入或产品进行分类并将它们编入清单来实现的。该清单是邮寄给供应商的。

在 Refined Bus Compony 的情况下,采购清单将包括玻璃、座椅板制造、电子产品、地毯、铝板等产品。这将全部组合成一个列表并邮寄给供应商。

正如 Lewis (2009) 所指出的,分类必须考虑与采购相关的所有固有风险以及公司从清单上的每个项目中产生的收入。商品的风险和可用性总是成正比的。当一种商品难以获得时,相关的风险也很高。根据 Bower (2013) 的说法,如果投入能够为公司生产的产出或产品增加巨大的价值,那么从投入中产生的收入就会很高。


For a proper classification process, Kraljik developed and recommended four approaches.

The first approach focuses in strategic inputs and is thus referred to as the strategic inputs approach. Strategic inputs bare the greatest risk in the entire manufacturing cycle, but yield the greatest profits for the organization once the final product is made and sold to clients or customers. In these regard, as Dimitiri, Piga, & Spagnolo (2011) suggests, these inputs deserve the greatest priority during the procurement process. If possible these inputs should be generated from within the company rather than sourcing them from other suppliers.

The second approach is the leverage inputs/approach. The company can achieve perfect leveraging for such product through total deployment of its purchasing power and make proper decisions whether to substituted/compliment the product of the involved supplier(s) (Fenson & Edin 2008).  美国经济学论文代写

The second approach is total consideration of all bottleneck inputs. Bottleneck inputs, despite having high supply risks, have minimal profits. For proper procurement of bottleneck inputs, the company must regularly build up the stocks of such items especially when there is high supply. In addition, as Demitiri, Piaga, & Spagnolo (2011) suggests, the company must devise way of controlling he suppliers who supply such items.

Next is approach the non-critical inputs approach. This approach ought to be used on inputs the company considers less critical. In most cases, such inputs have little profits and also involve insignificant or no risk. To handle this category of inputs the company’s approach must involve standardization of the outputs, monitoring the order place on the inputs and products, and maintaining optimum stock levels of the item


译文:

对于正确的分类过程,KRALJIK 开发并推荐了四种方法。

第一种方法侧重于战略投入,因此被称为战略投入方法。战略投入在整个制造周期中承担着最大的风险,但一旦最终产品制成并出售给客户或客户,就会为组织带来最大的利润。在这方面,正如 Dimitiri、Piga 和 Spagnolo (2011) 所建议的那样,这些投入在采购过程中应该得到最优先考虑。如果可能,这些输入应从公司内部产生,而不是从其他供应商处采购。

第二种方法是杠杆输入/方法。公司可以通过全面部署其购买力来实现对此类产品的完美利用,并做出是否替换/赞美相关供应商的产品的正确决定(Fenson & Edin 2008)。

第二种方法是全面考虑所有瓶颈输入。瓶颈投入尽管具有高供应风险,但利润微乎其微。为了适当采购瓶颈投入,公司必须定期建立此类物品的库存,尤其是在供应量很大的情况下。此外,正如 Demitiri、Piaga 和 Spagnolo (2011) 所建议的那样,公司必须设计出控制供应此类物品的供应商的方法。

接下来是接近非关键输入法。这种方法应该用于公司认为不太重要的输入。在大多数情况下,此类投入几乎没有利润,而且涉及的风险很小或没有风险。为了处理此类输入,公司的方法必须涉及输出标准化、监控输入和产品的订单位置以及保持项目的最佳库存水平


Market analysis

This is the second step in Krakjic’s model. Market analysis is critical tool for analyzing the power of the suppliers and the purchasing power of their customers. There are various ways of conducting this analysis by Porter’s Five Forces analysis provided the best approach of doing so.  The porter’s Five Forces too focuses on five items, supplier’s power, buyer’s power, competition and rivalry, threats of substitutes, and threat of entry of new competitors (Roy 2011). The information generated in this step is critical for the next step


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市场分析

这是 Krakjic 模型的第二步。 市场分析是分析供应商实力及其客户购买力的重要工具。 波特五力分析提供了多种方法来进行这种分析,这是这样做的最佳方法。 搬运工的五力也侧重于五个项目,供应商的力量、买方的力量、竞争和对抗、替代品的威胁以及新竞争对手进入的威胁(Roy 2011)。 此步骤生成的信息对下一步至关重要


Strategic positioning

This is the third step. In this step the inputs identified first step are categorized as strategic depending on the supplier and buyer strengths established in the second step. The categorization is made easy through the use the matrix bellow

Action Plans

This is the fourth step in the implementation of the model. It involves development of action plans for materials and product on regular basis depending on the items position on the strength matrix. The matrix provide the company with three purchasing strategy.

The first strategy is exploitation strategy. To exercises this strategy the company will have to use its purchasing power to buy inputs at good prices from several suppliers to minimize risks associated with the important inputs. The company may also purchase good in butches from specific suppliers if such suppliers offer good competitive prices. However, the organization should not be over enthusiastic with aggressive purchase.  美国经济学论文代写

The second strategy is the balance strategy. In this strategy the company should take the middle path. It should combine both exploitation and diversification measures to realize a perfect balance.

The final approach is the diversified approach. In this approach, the company will have to risks involved in supply through sourcing form several alternative suppliers. This ensures consistency and stability in supply of the item.


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战略性定位  美国经济学论文代写

这是第三步。在这一步中,第一步确定的输入被归类为战略,这取决于在第二步中建立的供应商和买方的实力。通过使用下面的矩阵可以轻松进行分类

行动计划

这是模型实现的第四步。它涉及根据强度矩阵上的项目位置定期制定材料和产品的行动计划。该矩阵为公司提供了三种采购策略。

第一个策略是开发策略。为了实施这一战略,公司必须利用其购买力从多家供应商处以优惠的价格购买投入品,以最大限度地降低与重要投入品相关的风险。如果这些供应商提供具有良好竞争力的价格,公司也可以从特定供应商处购买商品。但是,该组织不应过于热衷于积极购买。

第二个策略是平衡策略。在这个战略中,公司应该走中间路线。它应该结合开发和多样化措施来实现完美的平衡。

最后一种方法是多元化的方法。在这种方法中,公司将不得不通过从多个替代供应商处采购来承担涉及供应的风险。这确保了物品供应的一致性和稳定性。


Improvement of Service Support Centre (SSC) client demand satisfaction rate

Customer’s satisfaction is critical from the performance of company. It is realized through provision of high quality products and exemplary service (Milakovich 2005). However, with standardized products in the market the products from different company may have no significant difference in quality. In these regard service provision become the best approach to increasing customer satisfaction The Refined Bus service support centre will need improvement. Currently, the support centre operates within the budget of $30 million and the customers are reporting a 67.3 satisfaction rate from the SSC. Improving customers’ satisfaction rate may require improvement of the service centre’s approach to service provision. I suggest a continuous quality improvement mechanism that consistently seeks customer opinions, feedbacks, complaints and suggestion and use them to improve service quality.


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提高服务支持中心 (SSC) 客户需求满意率

客户的满意度对公司的业绩至关重要。 它是通过提供高质量的产品和模范服务来实现的(Milakovich 2005)。 但是,市场上的标准化产品,不同公司的产品在质量上可能没有显着差异。 在这些方面,提供服务成为提高客户满意度的最佳方法 The Refined Bus 服务支持中心需要改进。 目前,支持中心的运营预算为 3000 万美元,客户报告 SSC 的满意度为 67.3。 提高客户满意度可能需要改进服务中心提供服务的方法。 我建议建立持续的质量改进机制,始终如一地寻求客户的意见、反馈、投诉和建议,并利用它们来提高服务质量。


First, it is important to find out the customers’ needs (Milakovich, 2005).

The service centre should anticipate customer’s needs through documenting customer’s complaints and the experience of the service provided by the centre (Milakovich, 2005). The company should consistently seek feedback from customers document the feedback and make them part of a continuous quality improvement.  The feedback can be acquired through providing customers with a feedback form to fill it with their experience of service and suggestion.  The customer service centre employees may also call some customers to solicit for their honest opinions.  美国经济学论文代写

This should be followed by sorting the feedbacks analysing them in terms of feasibility and practicability and their ability to improve customer service. The findings should then be channelled to the management for approval. If approved they should be incorporate into the service provision practices. If they are not approved, they should be deliberated and sent to the management again. As new improvements are implemented, new opinions and feedback are collected


译文:

首先,找出客户的需求很重要(MILAKOVICH,2005 年)。

服务中心应通过记录客户的投诉和中心提供的服务体验来预测客户的需求(Milakovich,2005)。公司应始终如一地寻求客户的反馈,将反馈记录在案,并使它们成为持续质量改进的一部分。反馈可以通过向客户提供反馈表来获取,填写他们的服务经验和建议。客服中心的工作人员也可能会打电话给一些客户,征求他们的诚实意见。

随后应根据可行性和实用性以及改进客户服务的能力对反馈进行分类分析。然后应将调查结果提交给管理层批准。如果获得批准,它们应该被纳入服务提供实践中。如未获批准,应重新审议并送交管理层。随着新改进的实施,收集了新的意见和反馈


The tendering process  美国经济学论文代写

Tendering is important and can allow Refined Bus Company to push suppliers to compete against each other by reducing their prices (Ackett, Robinson & Statham, 2007). This can enable the company purchases material at low prices. For the existing suppliers who already have contracts with the company, tendering will take place at the end of their contract term ne suppliers however, will directly undergo the tendering process. The same process will be applied to both new and existing suppliers.


译文:

招标过程  美国经济学论文代写

招标很重要,可以让 Refined Bus 公司通过降低价格来推动供应商相互竞争(Ackett、Robinson 和 Statham,2007 年)。 这可以使公司以低价采购材料。 对于已经与公司签订合同的现有供应商,招标将在合同期限结束时进行,但供应商将直接进行招标程序。 相同的流程将适用于新供应商和现有供应商。


The process will start with a public call for expression of interest to supply the company with raw materials.

This is similar to advertising and can be done to public media (Griffith, Knight & King  2013). Once the relevant suppliers have expressed their interest, the will be served with tender requirements so that they can create the tender offers and submit them to the company for consideration.  The tender information given to suppliers will stipulate all the company’s requirement including tenders deadlines, products quality, supply timelines, tender budgets among others (Booth, 2010). The tender document submit by the interested parties should meet the national legal provision for tendering as well as the companies preset standards for tendering.  美国经济学论文代写

As Lewis (2009) notes, existing suppliers always have an upper hand compared to new ones. As a result, they will have a higher priority over new one. However, Refined Bus Ltd. should give consideration to all tenders submitted. An analysis shall be performed based on the company’s internal standards and the parameters that were stipulated in the tender circular. Only the suppliers that meet the stipulated requirements will stand to win the tendering process. The purchase committee will select the best company or companies (if diversification is necessary). The selected companies will notified of the outcomes. Letter of regret will be sent to these who are not successful.


译文:

该过程将从公开呼吁表达向公司供应原材料的兴趣开始。

这类似于广告,可以在公共媒体上进行(Griffith, Knight & King 2013)。一旦相关供应商表达了他们的兴趣,他们将收到投标要求,以便他们可以创建投标报价并将其提交给公司考虑。提供给供应商的投标信息将规定公司的所有要求,包括投标截止日期、产品质量、供应时间表、投标预算等(Booth,2010)。利害关系方提交的招标文件应当符合国家有关招标的法律规定以及企业预设的招标标准。

正如 Lewis (2009) 所指出的,与新供应商相比,现有供应商总是占上风。因此,它们将比新的具有更高的优先级。但是,Refined Bus Ltd. 应考虑所有提交的投标。应根据公司内部标准和招标通告中规定的参数进行分析。只有符合规定要求的供应商才能赢得招标过程。采购委员会将选择最好的公司或公司(如果需要多元化)。选定的公司将通知结果。遗憾的信将发送给那些没有成功的人。


Make or buy decisions   美国经济学论文代写

Based on Kraljiks model, the purchase team and management will make decision on whether to buy or make some of the part at the company’s premises. The classification of the inputs is the key to making such decisions. According to Kraljiks model, companies can create their own inputs for items that involve a high risk of supply yet have a high profitability (Kopplemann 1998).  Such material may include glass and tabular fabrications. Making these items may help the company further to increase profits margins through proper regulation of how they are manufactured and reduce costs that would have been associated with purchasing the inputs (Abramson & Harris 2003).


译文:

做出或购买决定

根据 Kraljiks 模型,采购团队和管理层将决定是否在公司场所购买或制造部分零件。 输入的分类是做出此类决策的关键。 根据 Kraljiks 模型,公司可以为涉及高供应风险但具有高盈利能力的项目创建自己的输入(Kopplemann 1998)。 这种材料可以包括玻璃和板状制品。 制造这些物品可能有助于公司通过适当监管它们的制造方式并降低与购买投入品相关的成本来进一步提高利润率 (Abramson & Harris 2003)。


Recommendations 

Refined Bus Ltd can realise improvement in its purchase and procurement activities through applying Kraljik’s ideas to its procurement activities.

1.The management should work with suppliers who are reliable and will not cause delays in delivery of the required items (Kovacs 2004).

2.The procurement process should be bases on quality besides the price as this would ultimately ensure that quality parts are manufactured by Redefined Bus Limited (Kovacs 2004).

3.Ensuring the quality in services provided will lead to increase in the customer base and as thus the service support centre will be able to comply with the 67.3% satisfaction rate required by their customers (Bower 2003).  美国经济学论文代写

4.he tendering process should be done in a way that will attract new vendors and suppliers. New tenders come in with different commodities that lead to diversity and variety of choice. Redefined Bus thus is in a position to choose from the variety and take up those items that portray profitability and customer satisfaction.

5.The buy or make decision should be based on the risk accorded to the item and the level of profitability. The company should make those items that have high risks and high profitability levels and buy those that have low risks and lower level of returns (Dimitri,Piga, & Spagnolo 2011).


译文:

建议  美国经济学论文代写

Refined Bus Ltd 可以通过将 Kraljik 的想法应用于其采购活动来实现其采购和采购活动的改进。

1.管理层应该与可靠的供应商合作,不会造成所需物品的延迟交付(Kovacs 2004)。

2.采购过程除了价格之外还应该以质量为基础,因为这将最终确保由 Redefined Bus Limited 制造的优质零件 (Kovacs 2004)。

3.确保所提供服务的质量将导致客户群的增加,因此服务支持中心将能够满足客户要求的 67.3% 的满意度(Bower 2003)。

4.投标过程应以吸引新供应商和供应商的方式进行。新的招标带有不同的商品,导致选择的多样性和多样性。因此,重新定义的巴士可以从种类中进行选择,并采用那些描绘盈利能力和客户满意度的项目。

5.购买或做出决定应基于赋予项目的风险和盈利水平。公司应该生产那些具有高风险和高盈利水平的产品,并购买那些低风险和低回报的产品 (Dimitri,Piga, & Spagnolo 2011)。


References  美国经济学论文代写

Abramson, MA & Harris, RS 2003 The procurement revolution, Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield.

Ackett, M Robinson, I & Statham, G 2007, The Aqua Group guide to procurement, tendering & contract administration, Oxford, Blackwell Pub. /Davis Langdon.

Booth, C 2010, Strategic procurement: organizing suppliers and supply chains for competitive advantage, London, Kogan Page.

Bower, D. (2003). Management of procurement. London, Thomas Telford.

Dimitri, N, Piga, G, & Spagnolo, G 2011, Handbook of procurement, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Fenson, C & Edin, P, 2008, How purchasing practitioners use the Kraljic matrix, Master Thesis, Stockholm School of Economics.

Griffith, A Knight, A & King, A 2003, Best practice tendering for design and build projects. London, Thomas Telford.

Koppelmann, U. (1998). Procurement marketing: a strategic concept. Berlin, Springer.

Kovács, A. (2004). Enhancing procurement practices: comprehensive approach to acquiring complex facilities and projects. Boston, MA, Kluwer Acad. Publ.

Lewis, H. (2009). Bids, tenders & proposals winning business through best practice. London, Kogan Page.

Milakovich, M 2005, Improving Service Quality in the Global Economy: Achieving High Performance in Public and Private Sectors, Second Edition, CRC Press

Roy, D 2011, Strategic Foresight and Porter’s Five Forces: Towards a Synthesis, GRIN Verlag

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