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美国留学论文格式

Proposed Assistance to the Hurricane Affected People In Betaland, Emergency Response Unit by SCILaid

 美国留学论文格式 A predefined team has been identified to carry out a joint assessment as soon as it will be possible after the hurricane. 

Table of Contents   美国留学论文格式

1.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………..…………………………3

2.0 Executive summary ……………………………………………………..………..…………4

3.0 The current situation ………………………………………………………..………..…….6

4.0 Problem analysis ………………………………………………………………..…………..14

5.0 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations ………………………………….27

6.0 Appendices …………………………………………………………………..…….………….. 28

7.0 References ………………………………………………………………………..……………. 37

Introduction

Betaland is a country which occupies the north eastern part of an island, which it shares with Alphaland. It has a population of 15 million people and its capital is Dhetra. It is a flat country with no mountains and two canals almost dividing the country in two towards the south where Chagong, the country’s second largest city, is located. The currency is the Betaland Dollar (1 BD = 0.031 USD) (Proctor, 217).

Betaland returned to a multiparty democracy in 1991, following a period of military rule (1975-1990). In February 1991, the first woman Prime Minister was elected. A change from a Presidential to a Prime-Ministerial government followed (Bell, 84).

About 84% of the population are rural dwellers. A number of conflicts have occurred since 1974 in Betaland and in neighbouring countries,

which has resulted in an influx of refugees to the South of the country. Although about 55% of the people, rural and urban, still live below the poverty line, there has been an improvement in living standards over the past decade. Education, in almost all sectors of Betaland’s society, is poorly addressed, with the resultant low literacy figures of 35% (Bell, 84).  美国留学论文格式

Betaland’s economy is still overwhelmingly reliant on agriculture and large aid inflows. The major export, Jute (which Agriculture provides), is productive.Betaland’s soil is highly fertile; however, the effects of the weather can be disruptive often destroying crops. Agricultural wages are amongst the lowest in the World.

The textile trade, by providing an independent income, has been one factor in the growing freedom of Betaland women.

In fact, they are now included in official employment statistics and are the main customers of the most successful rural bank. Women lead both the government and the opposition (Bell, 84).

Due to extreme violence in the neighboring country of Alphaland, the government of Betaland has accepted to open its borders and allow refugees fleeing the war zones to enter the country. Due to the high influx of refugees, the government of Betaland has welcomed in the country the UN humanitarian organization and international NGOs willing to support the government in providing assistance to the refugees entering Betaland. These organisations include UNRP, UNPF, HER, PRI, HAA, HRS, GAA among others.

There are currently 100,000 refugees in Betaland, located in 5 camps at the border between Betaland and Alphaland.  The international aid community provides shelter, food, water and sanitation and education to the refugees (Bell, 84).

2.0 Executive Summary  美国留学论文格式

A very strong Hurricane has just hit Betaland. According to the recent satellite images received in weather forecasting stations, it looks like hurricane route is up north. There is a potential problem in that it seems the strength of the hurricane was stronger than it was initially anticipated. Similarly the hurricane can change its direction to the south under which case the effects will be even worse.

From the assessments made by the humanitarian agencies (both UN and NGOs) present in Betaland and the Betaland government,

it appeared that the Hurricane which has hit the country, has affected the costal area in the northwest part of the country going from Rajpur to Naguran area. The hurricane has severely affected about 100,000 people living in villages in the coastal area. The affected people will need full assistance with provision of shelter (tents, blankets, cooking set), food (possible full rations in food parcel per family) and water (at least purification tablets in the first days). The People affected are; Severely 10,000 who will need full assistance and Moderately 10,000 who will need partial assistance   美国留学论文格式

It is on this back ground that this report is being prepared to outline how the humanitarian assistance will be given to the affected families. The short term goal of this operation will be to alleviate further human suffering; while the long-term goal is to resettle the displaced people and help rebuild their lives. The satellite photos below shows the Predicted damage.

Photo 1: Hurricane impact.

2.1. Objective

The major objective of this report is to outline how humanitarian assistance can be sourced, stored and finally distributed to the intended persons when such a disaster hits. The overall aim of such operations is to ensure a timely and effective humanitarian response to the needs of victims during an emergency. This will minimize mortality, stop further human suffering and even restore affected populations.

2.2. Strategies

The strategy of the Emergency Response Unit is to:

  • Ensure a set of agreed food basket items and non food items are available for immediate response
  • Ensure appropriate coordination between Programme, Logistics, Pipeline, Procurement and appropriate links with National and Local authorities
  • Ensure that the procured items are up to the accepted standards and are fit for human consumption

The programme will at first respond rapidly to the most hit areas. These have been identified to be Rajpur and Mugla areas.

3.0 The Current Situation  美国留学论文格式

3.1. Context

a) Contingency planning for hurricane response has been conducted with the attendances as indicated below:

From Betaland Government From Humanitarian Organizations From Donors
Ministry of Home Affairs UNIRP GAA
Ministry of Health UNPF HAA
Ministry of Defense UNFA
Ministry of Transport EHR  美国留学论文格式
Ministry of Finance PRI
Ministry of special issues ICHR
HRS

Conclusion of the above meeting was as follows:

–    Conclusion 1: Hurricane Track

Scenario 1: Hurricane route is up north

People affected:

  • Severely 10,000 who will need full assistance
  • Moderately 10,000 who will need partial assistance

Scenario 2: Hurricane route move to the south   美国留学论文格式

People affected:

  • Severely 15,000 who will need full assistance
  • Moderately 15,000 who will need partial assistance

Full assistance means: provision of shelter (tents, blankets, cooking sets, hygienic set), food (if possible full ration in food parcel per family), and water (at least purification tablets in the first few days).

Partial assistance means: provision of blankets, hygienic set, and supplementary food.

–              Conclusion 2: Health

Priority should be given to avoid any further potential epidemic. Ministry of Health will coordinate with the assistance of UNPF and EHR. Separate meeting will be held to specifically coordinate this sector. PRI will also be involved for sanitation and water provision matters.

–              Conclusion 3: Shelter

Ministry of Home Affairs will coordinate all the field distribution. The leading organization for shelter is UNIRP with the support of SCILaid and HRS.

Needs:

Scenario 1:

Tents   2,000 (1 tent per family of 5)

Blankets  10,000 (1 per person)

Cooking sets     2,000 (1 set per family of 5)  美国留学论文格式

Hygienic kits    2,000 (1 set per family of 5)

Scenario 2:

Tents   3,000 (1 tent per family of 5)

Blankets  15,000 (1 per person)

Cooking sets      3,000 (1 set per family of 5)

Hygienic kits      3,000 (1 set per family of 5)

–            Conclusion 4: Food

UNFA will be in charge of providing food to the victims with the assistance of SCILaid and HRS for distribution. The victims will be given food reserves once per week. The distribution is to be done on every Monday of the week for the entire 12 weeks duration. A weekly distribution schedule will be as shown below (Bell, 131).

Needs:

Scenario 1:

Commodity Daily Ration Total per family of 5 per day Total per Family per week Total for 2,000families per week
Rice 0.43 2.15 15.05 30100
Beans 0.06 0.30 2.1 4200
Vegetable Oil
0.02 0.10 0.7 1400
WSB 0.03 0.15 1.05 2100
Sugar 0.015 0.075 0.525 1050
Salt 0.005 0.025 0.175 350
Total 0.56 (kgs) 2.80 (kgs) 5,600 (kgs) 16,800 (kgs)

Family food parcel – A family food parcel is designed to feed a family of five for one day, based on the food basket quantities given in the SCILaid Management Information System.          美国留学论文格式

Scenario 2:
Commodity Daily Ration Total per family of 5 per day Total per family per week Total for 3,000families per week
Rice 0.43 2.15 15.05 45150
Beans 0.06 0.30 2.1 6300
Vegetable Oil
0.02 0.10 0.7 2100
WSB 0.03 0.15 1.05 3150
Sugar 0.015 0.075 0.525 1575
Salt 0.005 0.025 0.175 525
Total 0.56 (kgs) 2.80 (kgs) 5,600 (kgs) 58,800 (kgs)

–               Conclusion 5: Transport

The Ministry of Transport will make available as many trucks as possible for supporting the relief effort. Contacts already made with local companies. Also some bulldozers and earth movers are available for infrastructure restoration.

The Ministry of Defense will also contribute in providing staff and trucks. If necessary, they will also provide 2 helicopters (MI 26) for transporting staff and cargo in remote areas. UNFA is asked to coordinate with other organizations the needs of each of them. The overall coordination will remain with the Ministry of Defense (Bell, 131).

–         Conclusion 6: Donors

Whilst being supportive, the two main donors, GAA and HAA cannot commit any money for the preparedness phase. A substantial amount is already planned for the response. But the money will be released when the hurricane has hit and the first assessment is made.

–         Conclusion 7: Assessment

A predefined team has been identified to carry out a joint assessment as soon as it will be possible after the hurricane. The SCILaid Logistics Coordinator will be part of them. Assessment will be carried out in 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases.

–         Conclusion 8: Impact on Refugee Camps

UNIRP has expressed its concerns that the refugee relief operation should not be jeopardized by the response to the hurricane. The Betaland Government has strongly indicated that it will do its utmost to continue to support the refugee operation, but it will give the priority to the support of Betaland people who will be affected by the Hurricane.

–        Conclusion 9: Support

Betaland Government is convinced it is able to manage the relief operation with the support of the organizations already on the ground. It is not its intention to ask for more support from neighboring countries like Alphaland.

3.1.1 As the hurricane has hit, a coordination meeting was called and the following points were noted:  美国留学论文格式

– There was no much impact on refugee camps

-Activation of the assessment team using the  Army helicopters

-Betaland Government insisting that they have no additional needs for the time being. They wish to wait for the first result of the assessment before deciding on the next step   美国留学论文格式

-All organizations are requested to get ready under the coordination mechanism decided at the last coordination meeting. Following sectors to hold a meeting: Health, Shelter, Food and Logistics & Transport.

3.1.2.First assessment has been conducted with the result as follows:

-1stteam:

  • First look at Rajpur area
  • Level of destruction in Rajpur city seems limited
  • High level of destruction of road infrastructure in a region already poor in roads. Helicopters will be required
  • Priority should be: Medical assistance, water and food. Shelter does not seem to a be a major problem; at least for now
  • Next step will be to look at the coast area from Rajpur to Mugla   美国留学论文格式

-2ndteam:

  • Mugla port impracticable
  • Level of destruction in the city is limited
  • Bridge Naguran to Mugla broken
  • Next step will be to look at Naguran area

Based on the information received from first assessment, the Ministry of Defense agrees to avail two Mi26 helicopters at the disposal of Humanitarian Organizations for the relief operation.

UNFA, as agreed, will coordinate. Humanitarian organizations as requested to present their needs to the UNFA Air Coordinator, both in terms of material, equipment, goods and staff. For the time being, it is agreed that all flights will be directed to Rajpur. The air operation should start within hours. The helicopters will be made available only in the first 3 weeks of the operation. Strict rules will apply to facilitate smooth operation (Bell, 131).

  • Packing list with weight and volume should be sent to UNFA Air Coordinator 24 hours in advance of the flights schedule
  • List of passengers should be sent 24 hours in advance to the UNFA Air Coordinator
  • All cargo should be brought to the Dhetra Air Force base one day earlier
  • Any changes should be approved by UNFA Air Coordinator

3.1.3 Second assessment has also been conducted with the result as follows:

-1stteam:

  • The coast quite severely devastated. Many villages totally destroyed. Urgent need for 2,000 tents and 10,000 blankets
  • All crops gone. Most of the family food stock destroyed. Food a priority for that area. Approx 2,000 families (about 10,000 people)
  • Coastal road, more or less is fine. Not 100% sure but small trucks can go through

-2ndteam:

  • Impact limited in Naguran
  • Bridge on the road Mugla-Naguran still fine, but small trucks only
  • Food available in Naguran

Following the reports of the assessment teams, the Betaland Government has taken following decisions:

  • Food should be the priority for Rajpur area, mainly the coast from Rajpur to Mugla. The Betaland Government has requested to make all their available food stock at the disposal of this operation. This includes the stock for the refugees operations, despite the protestations from UNIRP and other agencies.
  • It is also requested to organizations in charge of shelter (UNIRP, SCILaid, HRS) to do their utmost to provide shelters to affected population in the coastal area as soon as possible
  • More information is needed to take further action in the Naguran area

3.1.4 UNIRP has agreed to distribute its stocks for shelter (tents, blankets, kitchen sets, and hygienic sets). However, 800 tents and around 4000 blankets are still needed.

3.1.5  SCILaid has been allocated two Logisticians in response to this hurricane. First logistician based in Rajpur, he is also responsible for operations in Mugla port. Second logistician based in Dhetra, responsible for movement of goods by the two helicopters.

美国留学论文格式
美国留学论文格式

3.2.   Scenario  美国留学论文格式

SCILaid has been designated to provide shelter and food to the 10,000 people identified north of the road Rajpur – Mugla. This will include provision of:

-2,000 tents

-10,000 blankets

-2,000 kitchen sets

-2,000 hygienic kits – hygienic parcel for 5 persons per month

Hygienic kits

The following table breaks down the hygienic kits that we will need for the entire period. A single hygienic kit is meant to last a family of five individuals for one month. Hence for the entire duration of three months, each family will need 3 hygienic kits. Since there are about 2000 families affected, it means we will need like

2000 * 3 = 6000 hygienic kits for the entire three months duration

Item Weight (Kgs)
Washing Powder for clothes 1kg per month 3
Toilet, paper, hygienic roll 12
Soap, body soap, 100g, piece 5
Tooth Paste, tube 75ml
5  美国留学论文格式
Tooth Brush, medium 5
Shampoo, 250ml 2
Razor, disposable 5
Hygienic Pads, normal 8
Total weight of Pack 7
Volumetric measurement 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5( m)

   Food parcels

-Family food parcels (3 months; 10,000 people per week)

Each food parcel will feed a family of 5 for one day.

Food parcel/basket:

This then means that to feed the entire population in one day we will need:

2000 * 1 = 2000 food parcels per day

In one week this will translate to:

2000 * 7 = 14000 food parcels.  Similarly in one month this translates to:

14000 * 4 = 56000 food parcels. And finally in the entire period of the humanitarian aid to the hurricane affected people of the land of Betaland we will need a minimum of:

56000 * 3 = 168000 food parcels to feed the victims.

The following table further simplifies this information as far as food distribution is concerned.

Commodity Daily ration Total per family/day Total for 2,000 families/day Total for 2,000 families/week
Rice 0.43 2.15 4,300 30,100
Beans 0.06 0.30 600 4,200
Veg. Oil 0.02 0.10 200 1400
WSB 0.03 0.15 300 2100
Sugar 0.015 0.075 150 1050
Salt 0.005 0.025 50 350
Total 0.56 (kg) 2.80 (kg) 5,600 (kg) 39,200(kg)

Since a food parcel weighs about 2.80kg. It means the food requirement for the entire operation will be about:

2.80 * 168000 = 470400kg of food

4.Problem Analysis

4.1. Policies, Capacities and Actions of the Government and Others

Government

a.The government is committed to support the relief operations on the ground. They agreed to allocate 2 Mi26 helicopters under the coordination of UNFA.

b.The government requested to give priority on food for Rajpur area, mainly the coast from Rajpur to Mugla. It is also requested organizations in charge of shelter to do their utmost to provide shelter as soon as possible.

c.The government is committed to restore infrastructure in areas that have been affected. This is in an effort to allow for smooth transportation of humanitarian aid.

d.Talks are also underway to liaise with the ministry of home affairs to provide security detail to our staff in the field (Ferlie, Lynn & Pollitt, 85).

Other Major Actors

Two main donors, GAA and HAA have substantial amount to donate for the response of emergency. UNFA will provide food with the assistance from SCILaid and HRS. of course the major player in the food distribution will be SCILaid. UNFA will be acting as a flight coordinator on behalf of Ministry of Defense.

4.2. Implementation Arrangements   美国留学论文格式

 Procurement

A committee of contract will be appointed to follow the procurement process.  Coordination will be done at Country Office level. Request for quotation should be sent to potential suppliers of food and non food items.

Due to emergency, the decision will be made by taking into consideration of multiple criteria not only the price. As confirmed by Logistics Officer in Rajpur, as much as possible purchase of blankets and food will be dealt with local supplier in Rajpur.

A Purchase Order/Contract must include all information, agreement and terms concluded, these being:

-SCILaid full address

-Complete address of consignee

-Order number

-Date of order

-Complete description of goods (specification)

-Quantity ordered

-Unit price

-Price for the transport

-Price for ordered quantity

-Total price

-Documents required

-Handling of goods

-Delivery terms (Inco terms 2000)  美国留学论文格式

-Time of delivery and possibly special clause such as penalty clause and cancellation

-Place of delivery

-Mode/date of payment, possibly banking address

-Nature/kind, quality of packing

-Marking: size of inscription, colors, special ink for food

-Inspection: according to the goods choose/appoint a recognized surveillance company and mandate them with a precise task: weight, quality (specification), quality of packing

-Special measures: according to the type of goods/country of consignee

-Special certificates

-Certified invoices (stamped)

-Analyses made by an official laboratory

-“Black list” – countries of production – entry of certain goods

-All the goods to be delivered by supplier in 3 times (once a month) as per delivery planned to the beneficiaries (Gender and Humanitarian Resource Kit, 142).     

Warehouse

We will need to establish warehouses in the following locations in order to be able to respond to the new hurricane emergency:

Dhetra: 2 temporary Rubhall warehouses (24 x 12) preferably located in the airport so that we can use then as temporary storage space for the first 3 weeks when we will need to use the helicopters to transport the goods from Dhetra to Rajpur.

Rajpur: the warehouse will need to have sufficient space in order to prepare the family food parcels before dispatching goods to the refugees affected areas for distribution   美国留学论文格式

We will probably need to establish another storage space on the road from Rajpur to Mugla, close to the affected area to allow daily dispatch of goods to the villages.

Jumla: this is our principle warehouse where we have goods stored that we will need to transport to the Hurricane affected population.

The current stock available in this warehouse is:

Item description Packaging type Packaging unit Accounting unit Total in kg or units
Rice 5% broken Bags 50 kg kg 639,900
Beans red kidney Bags 50 kg kg 162,312
Vegetable oil Tin 20 litres litre 82,214
Wheat soya blend Bags 25 kg kg 83,042
Sugar white
Bags 1 kg kg 2,071
Iodised salt Bags 1 kg kg 0
Family tents Piece piece 213
Plastic sheeting Roll 60 meters piece 30
Kitchen set Box piece piece 512
Blankets 50% Bundle 30 piece 1,230
Jerrycan collapsible Box 40 piece 520

In order to provide assistance to the Hurricane affected population, we need to dispatch as soon as possible the following goods:

Tents: 213 x 85 Kg (0.29 m3 per unit) = 18,105 Kg

Blankets: 1,230 = 41 bundles of 30 units x 50 Kg (0.22 m3 per bundle) = 2,050 Kg

In order to plan the warehouse activities for the loading of the trucks, I have taken the assumption that:

  • All goods will be packed in pallets and each pallet will be weighing 500 Kg;
  • We will load the goods in 20 tonnes trucks which will carry 40 pallets;
  • The movement distance is 10 meters(Gender and Humanitarian Resource Kit, 142).

For the tents we need a total of 43 pallets (each one will carry 425 Kg of tents), since each bundle of 30 blankest weight 50 Kg, we can palletized 5 tents and 1 bundle of blankets together, so that the total of pallets needed to transport both tents and blankets will be 43.We will also need to dispatch the food stuff on the count that we have divided the food needs by weeks, therefore the food to be dispatched for 1 week needs is:

  • Rice 30,100 kg (packed in 50 Kg sac)
  • Beans 4,200 Kg (packed in 50 Kg sac)
  • Oil 1,400 Kg (packed in 20 Liters tins)
  • Sugar 1,050 Kg (packed in 1 Kg sac)
Warehouse is needed for safe storage of the goods. Storage needs calculation:
Item Unit Weight per unit (kg) Volume per unit (m3) Total weight (kg) Total volume (m3)
2,000 tents Piece 85 0.29 170,000 580
10,000 blankets Bales of 30 50 0.22 500,000 2,200
2,000 kitchen sets Piece 5 0.025 10,000 50
2,000 hygienic kits Parcel 7 0.125 14,000 250
Rice Bag 50 0.075 12,900 19.35
Beans Bag 50 0.10 1,800 3.6
Vegetable Oil Tin 20 0.034 600 1.02
WSB Bag 25 0.037 900 1.332
Sugar Bag 1 0.001 450 0.45
Salt Bag 1 0.001 150 0.15
Total 710,800 3,105.902

When calculating storage space we should make some provisions for ventilation.

Then as per the plan, blankets will be purchased from Rajpur; hence, we need space for other goods in Mugla warehouse with the capacity 196.278 m2 as per calculation below:

(3,105.902 – 2,200) / 3 months = 301.973 m3, storage height is 2m then:

301.973 / 2 = 150.986 m2, add 30% for passageways and ventilation:

150.983 m2 + 30% = 196.278 m2.

Warehouse in Rajpur will be considered as a transit point prior to the delivery to beneficiaries. Total capacity required in this location is 672.943 m3 with the details calculation as below:  美国留学论文格式

2,000 blankets with total volume 2,200 m3 divided into 3 months:

2,200 m3 / 3 months = 733.333 m3, storage height is 2 m:

733.333 / 2 = 366.666 m2, add 30% for passageways and ventilation:

366.666 m3 + (30% of 366.667) = 476.665 m3

476.665 m2 + 196.278 m2 = 672.943 m3

Transport

We need to transport the available stock in Jumna warehouse to Dhetra and from Dhetra to Rajpur. The distance from Jumna to Dhetra is 125 Km by highway, there is the possibility of using the train. On the other hand distance from Dhetra to Rajpur is 100 Km, but because of road destruction 20 Km to Rajpur, land transport will not be possible at least in the first 3 weeks. To cover this distance during the first weeks, we will have to use the MI26 helicopters which have 20T capacity, put in place by the government (Handbook on Applying the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, 74).

Selection of transport mode:

We need to establish which transport mode will be the most effective in this new emergency scenario. We will not take into consideration the air transport because there is no airport facility in Jumna. Equally we will not take into consideration the sea transport because there is no port in Dhetra (Hogwood & Gunn, 114). Therefore our comparison table will only take into consideration road and rail transport:

MODE ROAD RAIL
CRITERIA
Relative speed Moderate Moderate
Reliability Good Moderate
Cost per tonne/Km Medium Low/medium
Flexibility High Low/medium

 Defining transport needs:

National Transport:

In order to support the new emergency we will need to set up 4 different transport plans:

  1. for the first 3 weeks from Jumna Warehouse to Dhetra airport
  2. Dhetra to Rajpur (by helicopters)
  3. Jumna Warehouse to Rajpur warehouse as soon as the road is repaired.
  4. Rajpur to affected villages (north of road Rajpur to Mugla)
In order to support the new emergency, we will need to transport existing goods available in our Jumna warehouse to Rajpur, via Dhetra

. We will need to transport the following goods and quantities to be able to satisfy the needs for the emergency for 3 months (the missing goods will be purchased locally).

  • Tents 213
  • Blankets 1,230
  • Rice 387,000 Kg
  • Beans 54,000 Kg
  • Vegetable Oil 18,000 Kg
  • Sugar 3,600 Kg

This means that we will need to transport a total of 546.7 tonnes of goods from Jumna to Dhetra by road and eventually to Rajpur either by helicopters (the first 3 weeks) and then by road.  美国留学论文格式

The ideal solution will be to a transit storage space in the form of Rub hall warehouses at the airport itself. It will be important to request the Government to give us a space in the airport where we could erect 2 temporary warehouses to stock the goods before being transported by helicopter to Rajpur.

International transport:  美国留学论文格式

In order to cope with the hurricane emergency we will need to have goods shipped from the SCILaid regional warehouse in Epsilonland. There is a charter flight already arranged to transport by air the goods to Dhetra airport.

During the emergency phase speed is of the outmost importance therefore air transport is the most efficient way to have the goods dispatched to Dhetra.

Key actors in the transport operations:

In order to set up the transport operation we will need to interact, liaise and cooperate with the following players:

Government/airport authorities:

the government will be providing the humanitarian community with helicopters to move the goods from Dhetra to Rajpur; they will also provide trucks for the operation to move the goods from Rajpur to the affected villages.

We will need to learn from them the updates on the road reconstruction so that we can shift the operation from helicopter movement to road transport as soon as the road will be in good conditions.

It is important to establish a good relationship with the customs authorities in order to be able to minimize the clearance of goods at customs.

Betatrans: This Company is already providing SCILaid with 5 (20T) trucks with drivers that we use for our refugees operation in the south of Betaland.

We will need to negotiate with them the rental of further trucks to be used to transport the goods from Jumna warehouse to Dhetra air force base. It has proven to be a reliable company so far, therefore it would be the first choice as transport provider. It would be a risk especially in the emergency phase to try a new provider which may prove not to be as reliable as Betatrans, therefore creating issues for the operation.

Given the increase in the amount of trucks we will rent, we could even try to negotiate further more the price for each truck rented, which is currently 4,000 USD per truck per month (Hogwood & Gunn, 114).

SCILaid has a transport mode comparison as shown below:

Mode Average Speed (kph) Relative Cost per tonne Relative Reliability*
Sea 35 25 4
Road 50 90 2
Rail 60 45 3
Air 500 250 1

* 1 = Most reliable – 4 = Least Reliable

Source: extract from a recent survey commissioned by HRS

There are two Mi26 helicopters which have been allocated for SCILaid every day for three weeks; hence the transportation will be done by air for that period. Payload capacity for Mi26 is 20,000kgs.

a). Mugla – Rajpur

Requirement on monthly basis for transportation from Mugla to Rajpur:

Item Weight (kg)
Rice 4,300
Beans 600
Vegetable Oil 200
Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 300  美国留学论文格式
Sugar 150
Salt 50
667 tents 56,695
667 kitchen sets 3,335
667 hygienic kits 4,669
Total 70,299

Since the capacity of each Mi26 helicopter is only 20,000kg, therefore, all the items above need to be transported in two days by two Mi26 everyday.

Transport Schedule by two of Mi26 helicopters for the first week allocation:

Day 1 Day 2
Item Weight (kg) Item Weight (kg)
1st Mi26 Rice 1,075 Rice 1,075
Beans 150 Beans 150
Vegetable Oil 50 Vegetable Oil 50
Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 75 Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 75
167 tents 14,195 167 tents 14,195
167 kitchen sets 835 167 kitchen sets 835
167 hygienic kits 1,169 167 hygienic kits 1,169
Total
17,549 17,549
2nd Mi26 Rice 1,075 Rice 1,075
Beans 150 Beans 150
Vegetable Oil 50 Vegetable Oil 50
Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 75 Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 75
167 tents 14,195 166 tents 14,110
167 kitchen sets 835 166 kitchen sets 830
167 hygienic kits 1,169 166 hygienic kits 1,162
Total 17,549 17,452

On the other hand transport schedule by trucks will be done only in one day for the second and third month of allocation. This is because by then the road network will have improved (Hogwood & Gunn, 114).

Transport schedule for the trucks:

Truck with capacity 10mt payload* Truck with capacity 20mt payload*
Mugla – Rajpur 101 201
102 202
103 203
104 204

* 101,102,103,104: SCILaid trucks donated by Xrayland

201,202: commercial fleet rented by SCILaid

b). Rajpur – Final Delivery Point

As confirmed by Logistics officer in Rajpur, local transporters will be contracted to delivery all the goods from Rajpur warehouse to the beneficiaries.

Requirement on monthly basis:

Item Weight (kg)
Rice 4,300
Beans 600
Vegetable Oil 200
Wheat Soya Blend (WSB)
300
Sugar 150  美国留学论文格式
Salt 50
667 tents 56,695
3334 blankets 166,700
667 kitchen sets 3,335
667 hygienic kits 4,669
Total 236,999

SCILaid need to contract 10 trucks with capacity 10mt payload which will delivery the entire requirement in 3 days. It is decided to use truck of 10mt payload with the consideration of road condition is narrow and broken.

    Staffing

Staffing is one of the hardest logistic components to obtain. Unlike other commodities that can be easily acquired, staffing takes along time to acquire, train and deploy. Since implementation of a project lies on the people involved, I will take my time to ensure that I recruit the suitable people for the various jobs. Furthermore I will ensure that everybody has his job profile, description and skills well stated (Ogilvy & Noble, 63).  美国留学论文格式

I will deploy one Logistics Assistant to supervise operation in Mugla and Rajpur. In addition to that I will have one storekeeper for Rajpur warehouse. In addition to the skilled staff, I will require assistance of support staff. This will include loaders and off loaders, clerks, distributors, watchmen and field officers. The support staff will be recruited from the local population so as to save time and unnecessary costs of importing staff from outside and also because of government will to have local staff recruited. Details of job profiles for all this staff is attached in the appendices.

Type of staff No. location
Head country office 1 Head office
Head of logistics 1 Head office
Logistics coordinator 1 Country office
Finance administrator 1 Country office
Finance managers 3 Sub offices
Logistician assistants 3 Sub offices
Storekeepers 3 warehouses
Support staff 30 field
Total 43

Head country office

He is the overall boss of SCILaid in the whole country. He oversees all the activities of the organization in Betaland. The finance director, head of logistics and the Human resources directly answer to the Head country office. Therefore he is a very senor person.

Finance administrator

He is the on responsible for financial functions of the organization. Among other duties, the finance administrator is expected to oversee the work of finance managers, give guidelines on source and usage of funds, control flow of finances in the entire organization.  美国留学论文格式

Head of logistics

This position is based in the head office and is fully responsible for all the logistics needs of SCILaid. He answers directly to the Head country office.  The head of logistics is assisted in his job by logistics coordinator and logistics assistants. They in turn directly answer to him.

Finance managers

They act as intermediaries between the top management and the field staff. This is why they are based on the sub offices. Their job is very crucial as it helps in ensuring that the organization’s objectives are met on the ground. They also supervise the field staff.

Support staff

These are the final people on the ground. They literally do the distribution of commodities to the victims. Support staff here includes loaders and off loaders, distributors, guards, clerks among others. Their effort is equally important because they provide feedback as to what exactly is taking place on the ground.

 Budget Forecast

To carry out any operation successfully, you need to calculate the amount of money you need and then see if your sources match up with those expectations. I t will be impractical to have a plan without funds since you will not be able to implement it. It is for this reason that i have come up with this budget (Proctor, 217).

Breakdown of Project Costs
Quantity (mt) Average Cost per mt (US$) Total Value (US$)
Commodity
– Rice 12.9 400 5,160
– Beans 1.8 300 540
– Vegetable Oil 0.6 700 420
– Wheat Soya Blend (WSB) 0.9 200 180
– Sugar 0.45 0.98 0.198
– Salt 0.15 0.42 0.063
Total Commodities  美国留学论文格式 6,300.261
Non Food Items
– Tents 170 70 11,900
– Blankets 500 50 25,000
– Kitchen Set 10 3,000 30,000
– Hygienic Kit 14 3,571.428 50,000
Total Non Food Items
116,900
Transport 60,000
Warehouses  美国留学论文格式 5,000
Staffs 30,000
Equipment and other fixed cost 10,000
Any emergency 30,000
Grand total 258,200.261

Financial records

For the purpose of this project I will need to maintain the following records. This of course will be with the help of the project accountant (Proctor, 217).

  • Cashbook
  • Stock book
  • General ledger
  • Balance sheet
  • Income and expenditure account

Controls to be put in place

Due to the sensitive nature of cash and other materials that are to be used in this entire exercise, controls are unavoidable. They must be in place. The regional managers will be involved in drafting their respective budgets which will have to be relayed to the head office for verification. If the office is satisfied with the budget proposals, they will go ahead and approve the budget. On the other hand if in doubt, they will send a team of experts to the sub office to in inquire further before allocations are made.

After a budget has been approved and allocated, a team of experts from the head office may also be sent to verify the accuracy of sub office managers returns. This is important so as to ensure that cash and other materials are used to benefits the intended persons.  美国留学论文格式

 Healthy and safety measures

Health is a core and basic human right, if the operation is to be successful; Health (especially of the staff) must be looked into. Based on this understanding I will make necessary arrangements with ministry of health and emergency health relief (HER) to provide health care services to my entire team. This is to ensure that nobody becomes a victim of circumstances while on duty (Health Response in Conflict Consortium, 58).

  Security

So far we have never had any serious security issues while carrying out our operations in Betaland. However this is not a guarantee that we will never have any security issues in the future, it always pays to be cautious. To this end we have decided to work closely with the government of Betaland for the sake of our own security, that of victims and that of commodities. Also I will recruit suitable locals in the respective regions to secure the warehouses (Terry, 74).

I will also prepare my staff in advance for the task ahead. This will include training, equipping and taking necessary precautions before hand. For instance the seven pillars of security will be observed. These are acceptance, identification, information, regulations, personal behavior, communications and protection. Wherever need arises, police force and armed guards may be deployed. This is due to the security threats posed at the borders especially Alpha land which is at war.

 Communication  美国留学论文格式

Communication is very vital component in any organisation. Due to the effect of the hurricane, there is a possibility of communication channels breaking down. The fixed land lines, boosters, and even power may be cut off.  We will be forced to use the mobile phones, satellite phones and any other available mode to communicate as we await restoration of the systems. All the field staff will communicate to the head office for co-ordination purposes (Borisoff & Merrill, 65).

The field staff will communicate to either finance managers or logistician assistants in the regional offices. This will be on a daily basis so as to allow for easy flow of goods and services. On the same note the sub office staff will report or communicate directly to the head office for coordination purposes. The sub-office staff will act as the intermediary between top management and the support staff.

5.Summary, Conclusions  and  Recommendations

a.Food and non food items will be purchased on the basis of best value and subject to approval of the procurement authority.

b.Programmes will be monitored by the country office in Betaland.

c.Food and non food items movements will be monitored and reported on weekly basis from the field to Beta land country office.

d.The impact of distribution of food and non food items will be assessed by Programme Coordinator.

Risk Assessment and Contingency Planning

Risk

The following are some of the risks that were identified:

a)Limited capacity of budgets among SCILaid, government and civil society groups

b)Adverse and unpredictable weather conditions affecting distribution in the fields

c)Lack of commitment from suppliers, transporters, and staffs on the field

d)Uneven sharing of information among all the relevant authorities

e)Broken infrastructure especially in the first few weeks

Contingency Planning

a)Hurricanes and torrential rains need to be anticipated. Capacity constraints will be addressed through refresher training in emergency for SCILaid staffs, local government staffs and village groups.

b)Additional donor funds have to date need to be made available on a case-by case basis.

c)Cluster system need to be activated, arrangements need to be made to enable all humanitarian agencies to stock adequate food and non food items as a reserve.

6.Appendices  美国留学论文格式

Appendix 1: abbreviations used

UNIRP  : United Nations International Refugee Programme

UNPF  : United Nations Protection Fund

UNFA  : United Nations Food Aid

HER  : Emergency Health Relief

PRI              : Poverty Relief International

ICHR  : International Committee of Humanitarian Relief

HRS  : Human Relief Society

GAA  : Global Aid Agency

HAA  : Humanitarian Aid Agency

Appendix 2: Staff Job Profiles

 JOB TITLE: Humanitarian Support Personnel (HSP) – Logistician
International Division, Humanitarian Department JOB FAMILY: Property/Logistics
SALARY: £18,500 – £23,865 net per annum LEVEL: GLOBAL C2
TEAM PURPOSE: To ensure that the operational implementation of SCILaid programmes and strategy is:

• Properly planned and managed by the right Logistics team;  美国留学论文格式

• Efficient, through the timely availability of assets and a transparent supply chain, with close monitoring of the consumption and use of those assets;

• Structured through the clear definition of individual responsibilities and appropriate processes and ways of working.

JOB PURPOSE: The purpose of this role is to manage a number of specific teams/projects or to provide a wide range of specialist advice or support in order to deliver an efficient, cost-effective quality service.

REPORTING LINES:

Post holder reports to: Manager of HSP Logisticians. While overseas, HSPs are line managed by the relevant programme manager.

Staff reporting to this post: May change according to deployment.

BUDGET RESPONSIBILITY: Yes – varying according to deployment

DIMENSIONS:

• Manages a number of teams, assets, budgets, projects or processes.  美国留学论文格式

• Problems are diverse but solutions can be identified from a wide range of previous experience with judgment being required to find and apply the most appropriate solution.

• Requirements to influence managers and to negotiate medium level contracts and manage external relationships.

• Impact of this level always affects the department, usually the division and sometimes the organisation.

KEY RESPONSIBILITIES:

• To manage and implement an integrated Logistics service which involves liaising and working closely with all members of the Logistics / Supply Team, advisors and other SCILaid staff, ensuring forward planning, preparedness and a cost effective and efficient service.

• Ensure permanent visibility of Logistics activity through concise reporting to line and matrix managers. Key Logistics issues should be prioritized and recommendations made with practical solutions in mind.

• Assist the Programme Manager in the development of programme, project, security and emergency preparedness plans, and be actively involved in the development and implementation of effective Logistics / Procurement plans.

• Build the capacity of local staff in readiness for handover at the end of each mission.

• Manage significant external relationships, for example, with suppliers, government bodies, other Non-governmental agencies and partners.

• The role is target based and highly variable. Therefore, there is a need to be adaptable and creative.

Job title: Senior logistics officer

Responsibilities:  美国留学论文格式

The Primary Responsibility for the Senior Logistics Officer is to implement the SCILaid emergency response in support of programme objectives. This involves overseeing all daily logistics operations in the following areas:

  • Air and transport operations
  • Warehousing and Stock Management including Donations-in-Kind
  • Asset Management
  • Insurance Requirements
  • Fleet Management
  • Personnel Management
  • Manage the emergency stocks to ensure readiness, rapid deployment, and timely     replenishment
  • Coordinates logistics operations with other UN agencies, NGOs and other organisations in the field.
  • Gather, analyse and disseminate relevant logistics information from external sources, e.g. UN, coordination meetings, other NGOs etc.

Requirements:

  • 10 years or more experience as Logistics officer with an international Organization in a field environment, at least 5 years of which should be in an emergency response situation.
  • Proven management ability to lead, motivate and develop staff, both local and expatriates.
  • Skills in training and capacity building of national staff and partners.  美国留学论文格式
  • Flexibility to adapt to changing requirements.
  • A willingness to accept basic living conditions.
  • Fluent English.
  • Strong problem solving and decision-making skills.
  • Ability to work under pressure, managing a varied workload.
  • Strong IT skills, particularly Microsoft Excel.
  • Strong attention to detail and report writing skills.
  • Financial Management skills and the ability to contribute to the budgeting and budget monitoring process.

Desirable:

  • Sound experience in procurement and knowledge of SCILaid procedures

Job Location:

Rajpur, Betaland.

Reporting To:

SCILaid Logistics Coordinator in Dhetra Betaland

Job Title: Logistics Officers

Responsibilities:

The Primary Responsibility for the Logistics Officer is to manage and implement the SCILaid logistics operations for the on going food distribution and the refugee camps, in support of programme objectives. This involves overseeing all daily logistics operations in the following areas:

  • Port and transport operations
  • Warehousing and Stock Management
  • Asset Management
  • Insurance Requirements
  • Fleet Management
  • Personnel Management
  • Manage stocks to ensure readiness, rapid deployment, and timely replenishment
  • Capacity to analyse and disseminate relevant logistics information from external sources, e.g.  Clearing agents, port authorities, and commercial partners.

Requirements:  美国留学论文格式

3 years or more experience as Logistics officer with an international Organization in a field environment, at least 1 year of which should be in an emergency response situation.

  • Proven management ability to lead, motivate staff.
  • Skills in training and capacity building of national staff and partners.
  • Flexibility to adapt to changing requirements.
  • Fluent English.
  • Ability to work under pressure, managing a varied workload.
  • Good IT skills, particularly Microsoft Excel.
  • Attention to detail and report writing skills.

Desirable:

  • Good knowledge of SCILaid procurement procedures

Job Location:

Jumla, Betaland.
Reporting To: SCILaid Logistics Coordinator in Dhetra, Betaland.

Appendix 3: Stocks in various warehouses

Stock report
Mugla Warehouse  
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Date Month 3
Item Code Item Packaging Packaging Opening Closing
  Description Type Unit Balance Balance
FCRRICEBR5 Rice 5% broken Bags 50 kgs 339,900 639,900
FPULBEANRK01
Beans red kidney Bags 50 kgs 262,312 162,312
FOILRAPERE01 Vegetable oil Tin 20 ltrs 12,214 82,214
FNUTWSBX6722 Wheat Soya blend Bags 25 kgs 33,042 83,042
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FBAFSUGAWH04 Sugar white Bags 1 kg 7,071 2,071
FBAFSALTIODE Iodised salt Bags 1 kg 2,357 0
HSHETENTF16C
Family tents Piece 213 213
HSHETARPW460 Plastic sheeting Roll 60 metres 30 30
KRELCOOSETA Kitchen set Box piece 512 512
HSHEBLANWMT1 Blankets 50% Bundle 30 1,230 1,230

 

Appendix 4: Map of Betaland

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美国留学论文格式

Appendix 5: Major Actors in Betaland

There are a large number of actors involved in Betaland aid operations. Besides the 2 UN Agencies (UNIRP and UNFA) and 1 institutional donor (HAA) with which we have a close working relation, many more actors are involved. They are as follows:

Government of Betaland: this is a democratically elected government. It is important because without the government’s will and request of international aid, the operation could not be carried out.

United Nations International Refugee Programme (UNIRP)

As per its mandate the United Nations International Refugee Programme (UNIRP) is coordinating the efforts to provide protection and assistance to Alphaland refugees in Betaland. This is done in close cooperation with the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Betaland Government UNIRP takes care of the refugee camps management, coordinating the assistance given by other actors according to their field of expertise (for example UNFA for providing food, UNPF for education, etc). UNIRP is also involved in the preparedness phase of the Hurricane alert.

United Nations Food Aid (UNFA)

It is one of our major partners in this operation. UNFA is responsible for providing food which we (SCILaid) and HRS (a local NGO) distribute to the camps.  美国留学论文格式

They also work in close relation with UNIRP and the Betaland government. UNFA is also fully involved with the preparedness phase for the possible hurricane.

International Committee for Humanitarian Relief (ICHR)

Its activities consist in restoring the family links between refugees and their families in Alpha land. Their work is done in coordination with UNIRP and UNPF.

United Nations Protection Fund (UNPF)

UNPF focuses its activities on education. They have organized schools in the refugee camps and delivered education kits for the children. UNPF is also responsible for providing teachers for the children in cooperation with UNIRP, local authorities and the refugees’ leaders. UNPF also provides technical assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture for the provision of clean water to the refugees, and they are studying a possible solution to provide the water through piping or bare holes in order to avoid the expensive and complicated exercise of providing water with water trucks. Finally UNPF is also involved in the measles immunisation campaign done by HER.

Emergency Health Relief (HER)

This is an International NGOs responsible for the entire health sector of the refugee operation. They have opened medical clinics in the camp, they have activated and immunization campaign and they provide supplementary and therapeutic feeding for the malnourished children. They work in close relation with UNIRP and the Betaland Ministry of Health. They are also involved in the preparedness phase of the hurricane and are ready to cover the health assistance if need arises.

Poverty Relief International (PRI)

This is a humanitarian organisation concerned with hygiene and sanitation of the refugee camps. They monitor the waste water and vectors control. PRI works in close cooperation with EHR to avoid water borne diseases in the camps. They also organize information campaigns and training to develop skills and knowledge of effective hygiene amongst the refugee population. Its experts are also involved in the exercise of providing clean water in the refugee camps together with UNPF and the Ministry of Agriculture.

Humanitarian Relief Society (HRS)

HRS is a local NGO that carries out the food distribution to 2 out of the 5 refugee camps, they work in cooperation with us, and they also receive the food from UNFA. HRS has been asked by the Government to participate to the preparedness phase of the hurricane, and due to its limited resources they might have to withdraw from the food distribution operation in order to concentrate on the hurricane preparedness.

Humanitarian Aid Agency (HAA)   美国留学论文格式

This is an institutional donor with permanent office in Betaland. They support most of the Organizations involved with this operations including UN agencies, International and local NGOs. They have signed a partnership agreement with us for this specific operation.

Global Aid Agency (GAA)

GAA is an institutional donor that supports the refugee operations in kind and cash donations to UNIRP, UNFA, PRI and HRS.

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Emergencies, n.d. 11 September 2004.  美国留学论文格式

<http://www.reliefweb.int/library/GHARkit/>.

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Ogilvy K. & Noble L. Leading and managing groups in the outdoors. Cumbria: Institute

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Financial Times Press, 2009.

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UNHCR, n.d. 11 September 2004

<http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/hiv02.pdf>.

Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium, Resources List on Gender-based 

Violence from the GBV Initiative, n.d. 11 September 2004   美国留学论文格式

<http://www.rhrc.org/resources/gbv/index.html>.

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September 2004 <http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/unhcr.pdf

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美国留学论文格式

 

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