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组织行为学论文代写 Organizational behavior is defined as the academic study of the ways in which different people act within groups.
Organizational behavior 组织行为学论文代写
Organizational behavior is defined as the academic study of the ways in which different people act within groups. There are some defined areas of organizational behavior such as improvement of job performance, promoting innovation, increasing job satisfaction and increasing leadership. It is also defined as the study of human behavior in an organizational setting which is the prime interface between organization and human behavior, as well as of the organist itself. The underlying stance of understanding organizational behavior has evolved over the course of time, because behavior is the most significant element of employee performance. It is one of the reasons that today, organizational behavior is not just a topic of discussion, but it is a department and a legitimate field of study, that has introduced several disciplines of research and investigation in order to address the trends of market. It is not just an insight to address but a framework to be evaluated because it is the significant part of organization future.
The history of organizational behavior is very old, traced back to 18th century when Mex Weber and the other intellect came up the ideas that can empower organization. By that time organizational behavior was just an ideology that had no significant theoretical backgrounds. In1760, during industrial revolution there was a prime focus on the development of industries and paved the way for new technologies that resulted in the adaptation of new techniques of manufacturing, with new techniques ad innovations, there was an increase in mechanization and to pave the way for managing employees in a more organized way to facilitate goal achievement. Thus, industrial revolution was one of the significant lead to the study of organizational behavior. The first theatrical insight guided by evidences was introduced in late 1920. The western electric company launched a famous series of studies that was a detained account on the behavior of workers of Hawthorne Works Plant in Cicero, Illinois.
The researchers aimed at finding out ways that can be used to determine whether workers can be made productive and more passionate to work if the environment will be upgraded. The underlying essence of up gradation dealt in better lightening and other design improvements that can add to the productivity of employees. The results revealed that environment was of least significance for the employees as compared to the other social factors, such as motivation and appreciation. The best known result was in the form of Hawthorne effect, under which it was described that the behavior of the employees change when they know that they are monitored and observed. The research o Hawthorne effect was credited for validatitig organizational behavior as one of the most signified fields of study. Human resource department, which is now considered as the core department of any organization is also the product of Hawthorne study
An evaluation of studies and research on organizational behavior has highlighted that there is a great difference between the two timelines. 组织行为学论文代写
One of the basic understanding of shift in organizational behavior can be understood by an analysis of Henri Fayol’s theory. Henri fayol developed management principles under which management is defined as a displace as well as profession. It is highlighted that management involves different tasks such as recruitment of human resources and its deployment in the organization.
According to Foyl, management should be well educated and taught about the skills and the responsibilities that can help them to address the organization. These areas are, production, commercial and financial roles, planning and the coordination in management. Foyl discovered fourteen principles that can be used to address the necessities of an organization such as, authority, division of work, unity of direction, discipline, unity of command, remuneration, subordination of the individual interest, equity, centralization, scalar chain, esprit de corps. Stability of the tenure of personnel and initiative.
The first seven principles were considered to be an analysis of the jobs, such as vision of work in terms of specific and specialized jobs, under which a worker might be able to work in a more efficient way. It is also highlighted that the small management units that oversee function areas of the organization are now more capable of incorporating accountability of production in the form of assigning of work and holding workers accountable for their task. In addition, Foyl defined five major management roles that can help a manger to run an organization in effective way. As a result, there is an increase in productivity because when employees are made accountable for their tasks they try to put in more efforts and ultimately pave the way for achievement of goals.
The analysis of eight to fourteen principles highlight that significance of decision making process in the form of motivation, team spirit, hierarchy, employee satisfaction and hygiene.
Here, it is found that Foyl introduced principles such as centralization, scalar chain and order etc. Centralization facilitates the understanding of how close the employees are to the stance of decision making. If decisions are made accurately, then there are more chances goal achievement because operation can only be coordination when clear decisions are made and those decision are effective in revision of employees as well as employers. 组织行为学论文代写
Scalar chain highlights how a chain of command is created. The underlying essence of this statement highlights that transmission of information from highest to lowest level or the lowest hierarchy within an organization. The analysis of order as an attribute of organizational behavior communicates that the workplace must have an underlying order in the form of clean, safe and tidy place for the employees. Foyl gave his example, highlighting that for a chef at work, it is important to have a work areas that is complete, neat and safe. Equity asserts that all the employees should be treated equally, none of the employees should be degraded or suppressed. In addition equity also emphasized the importance of equal role distribution, attributes and incentive.
Under equity all the employees feel valued and they are of motivated to perform their role at its best.
The essence of stability of the tenure highlights that it is obvious that all the employees might be seeking some better opportunity of work and success. It is the responsibility of the organization to maintain the tenure so that the stability of organization can be made and employees can make their decisions accordingly. Initiatives refer to the actions that are taken by an organization for the achievement of underlying goals, and it is asserted that all the employees should be made confident that the organization will take initiatives in the best interest of employees. Esprit de corps refer to the “feeling of pored and mutual loyalty that is shared by the members of the group.
It is the last principle proposed by Foyder, asserting that an employee should feel pride in the group in which an employee is working. In addition, it is highlighted that the stance of mutual pride and loyalty can be incorporated by the members of the group who have been working together and these values should be reinforced by the actions of the employers. They should try to incorporate and add positive attributes in the employees and their groups so that they can incorporate team building. These roles are commanding, planning, for casting, coordinating, organizing and controlling. Under these roles, the attributes and actions of employers are clearly identified which act as an underlying approach for the organizational behavior. 组织行为学论文代写
It is evident that there is a significant change in the understanding of organizational behavior from the past few years till now. This change can be observed in the multiples ways, one such way is the valuation of different organization over the course of time. An insight into the trends and the organizational concepts of 19th century highlight that initially the stance of organizational behavior was confined to the realms of environment.
It was the time when the employers were of the view that environment and spacing is the only thing that is required by the employees to work with passion and achieve the organizational goals. When Hawthorne effect rejected the significance of environment, simultaneously the attention of organizations was developed towards the social factors. It paves the necessity of human resource management because social factors cannot be addressed without human resource managers. It was the primary addition to the organizational behavior, and introduced for activities such as hiring, coordinating, managing employees and addressing the issues that might be faced by the employees in an organization.
In early 1960s and 1970s attention was focused on the social psychology and the emphasis of academic study that can help to explore the underlying features of an organization.
Some of the significant features are, bounded rationality, contingency theory, resource dependency, institution theory and informal organization that diverted attention towards the actions required of an employer to run an organization. Under these departments and concepts, the focus of organizational behavior was shifted to the understanding of human relations.
So, leadership was one of the prime focus of attention, such as contingency theory introduced different leadership concepts that can be used to regulate organization. It was the time, during which employers introduced concepts such as, employee motivation, productivity of labor and the features that can lead to job satisfaction. In a simplified way, it was a practical approach to the Hawthorne effect under which incentives, apaches and other practical platforms were introduced so that employees can be made a part of organization and they can be motivated to use their skills for the benefit of organization. All thee implications were enforced under the role of human resource department.
There are some significant actions introduced in the organization such as, adhering to a particular leadership styles, introducing ways to incorporate employee management and changing the hierarchy of organization is that flow of communication can be facilitated and employees can understand the task and objectives of the organization. In addition, communication channels and interaction ways were also emphasized. It was a fundamental addition to organizational behavior because employers introduced and incorporated ways that were not only new but added to the smooth essence of organization. As a result, the employees were more free as compared to the labor commands of the past and they were well aware that all their action will be paid either in the form of bonuses or penalties which not only motivated them but also added to the working competences of the employees.
In the beginning of 20th century, the attention of organization was shifted to the therapies that were inbred with an aim to clarify the understanding of organizational behavior. One of the significant contribution was done by Henro Fyl who incorporated certain chunk of organizational framework which needed to be addressed so that effectiveness and goal orientation of organization can be made. With the passage of time, new things are made part of the organization, taking into account that it is known as third stage of organizational behavior. In this stage the primary interaction of the employers and researchers were the group and individual.
In the second stage, the fact was the connect employees with the employer but this approach stressed the necessities of smoothening relationship of one employee with the other and the group members. 组织行为学论文代写
As a result. There were some significant changes brought to the organization in the form of changes in the employee interaction and the way employees were arranged. Some major changes were the distribution of takes, its evaluation and reporting because the connection of employee interaction with the employer deprived employees of the colleague affection. As a result several workplace conflicts were brought on board and it was a major hurdle in the passage to success.
So, the third stage brought employee interaction on board for which different group evaluation and team work was promoted. It also added different departments to the organization and almost all the organization started those department such as managerial, accountancy and executives which helped to understand the joint responsibility and the significant of excellence. It was the time when the concept of employee diversity and ethical considerations were introduced with an aim to incorporate accountability and feeling of transparency. However there were no sound ground on which these adaptation were justified.
In 21 century, there was a remarkable shift in the understanding of organizational behavioral because it was introduced as an academic discipline. In this stage, different models ad levels of organizational behavior are introduced din order to incorporate better understanding and the smooth working of organization, these models and level are also in use in the current time. Some significant models of organizational behavior are, autocratic custodial, collegial and supportive.
These models were introduced with an aim to classify organization with respect to the industry and department, along with the belief under which the employer think that the organization can achieve its goals. Autocratic model inferred a managerial orientation of authority, highlighting the obedience and dependency of the employees on the boss. In this model, the managerial orientation is doctorial and a manger exercise its commands over the employees. Significant example of model of organization can be found in the United States in which all the requirements and obligations are introduced to the employees in the beginning and it is the job description of an employee to adhere to those obligation.
The basis of custodial model is found in the economic resources in which manorial orientation is done by money resources.
As a result, the employees are oriented towards benefits and security. The basic need of the employee that is met by organization is security. Although it is one of those models which is current under practice, still it is highlighted that the employees do not work happily, they are more aggressive and stressed. Some of the organization that adhere to this model are, Indra Ghandi in which employees are provided with the facilities such as transport, day care and house lease facility and in return their services are required.
Another significant organizational behavior model is “the supportive model”. The basis of this model is the leaders with managerial orientation of the support, under which employees are motivated to turn towards the participation in job and job performance. The underlying essence of this model is leadership rather than money and authority. It is one of the most useful and supportive model of organizational behavior, taking into account that the manager recognize the worker not by the actions and the goals achievement rather employees are assessed in terms of the flaws in leadership styles. It is one of the most preferred model of organizational behavior in Australia because leadership is considered as the underlying approach that motivate employees to strive for goal achievement.
The collegial model of organizational behavioral highlights the word, “colleague”, which means that a group of people having some common purpose. This model is directly associated with the underlying essence of team work and project management. However the basic foundation of the model lies in the ability of the team and the manger to building up their relationship in such a way that positive outcomes are attained. Under the impact of these models, employees feel more motivated and satisfied because they are made to work in the limelight of the recognition and each of the member’s performance is analyzed. Another major befit associated with collegial model is the Essene of self-discipline that highlights that the feeling of employees are backed and empowered by the feeling of team work that is incorporated by the manager and the leaders in the form of appraisal and appreciations. It is one of the most widely use model. 组织行为学论文代写
The implication evaluation of these models highlights that there is no such organization that is working by relying on that particular model.
In fact every organization is a combination of these models, taking into account the underlying goals of objective achievement which is not possible by relying on a single model. Another significant evolution that is observed in the organization behavior of the present time is the differentiation in the organizational behaviors. In addition, to these levels, there are some other profound addition to the organizational behavior as compared to the past in fact these additions are considered as the elements of organizational behaviors. These elements are, structure, technology, people and environment.
Structure refers to the roles and relationship of the people within an organization. In the present time, significance is given to the type of relationship that the employees have with the other employees and the employers. Different people in different organizations are given different roles and their performance is judged on the basis of the performance of these roles and responsibilities.
It is one of the requirements of the modern organization that an employee should be assigned the role that is in his approve and the roles on which an employee has complete command. The structure of the organization helps to understand the underlying feature of an organization because it facilitates an insight into the duties that are fulfill under the fulfilment of those roles. In addition, structure also help the employees to perform their roles because if an organization follows a general structure then there is no sense of responsibility which paves the way for no attention towards goal achievement because of lack of check and accountability.
People is another major element of organizational behavior as an organization cannot be formulated and designed without people.
The element of people present the individual and groups who are the part of an organization. It also specifies the description of groups, wither they are unofficial, official, and formal. The understanding of people also addressed the evaluation of the inclusion of people who will be working for an organization. It is evident that those organization works in a more organized way in which there is a clear difference of people, and employees are known to the adherence of hierarchy.
Diversity is one of the major subject of people. It is also one of the subject that is common to the organizational behavioral of modern era because in the past it was one of the major limitation. Employee diversity highlight that all the employees within an organization must be made to work in coordination. There must not be any social evil in the form of racism, discrimination and mitigation of the employee culture. Diversity is one of the best goals that is brought to the realms of organizational behavior because it has added to the understating of goal achievement. Inclusion of diversity has reduced the cost of employees as diversity is addressed from the internal sources and it is easy to manage organization at multi-dimensional and international level.
Technology is another significant and important element of organizational behavior. It is highlighted that none of the organization of the present time could have excelled without technology.
It would not be wrong to say that technology is one of the hallmarks for the choice of organization to be considered as modern and up to the set trends. In addition, it is highlighted that it is the equipment of organization behavior that the employer should incorporate the required technology in the workforce so that employees can be facilitated. It was introduced with an aim to reduce the goal which was prevalent in the form of technological task which was done by the employees. Another aspect of technology asset that it is an important part of organizational behavior because in the absence of technology an employee cannot work with accuracy, and technology reduced the chances of errors because technology not only reduce the labor costs, but it is a onetime expense that can lead to organizational prosperity in the long run.
Environment is another major element of organization behavior. It is highlighted that it is the environmental factors which makes up the complete organization. Although hawthorn papers defied the significance of environment by the current trends highlighted that employees cannot work until, appropriate environment is not provided to the employees. It also signifies the importance of internal and external factors. One of the justification is that, by that time, there was no significance and classification of external and internal factors which can add to the understanding of an organization. 组织行为学论文代写
In addition it is highlighted that the classification of environment is organization into external and internal factors has facilitated the understanding of signifies of each factors thus added to the importance of environment. The internal factors of the organization re, financial resources, physical resources and human resources. All these factors play a central role in making the internal environment of the organization because lack of financial resources, creates gap in the economic development of organization such as analyzing the employees, addressing the stock needs and then maintenance etc. Physical resources refers to the allocation of resources that are required, these resources are also confirmed as the part of company’s location, its facilities and the other equipment’s. Then, human resources refer to the resources such as target audience, volunteers and the employees without whom an organization cannot work.
The external factors of organization are, political factor, economic factors, and the social factors.
Political factors refer to the legal adherence and the legitimacy of the organization which plays a central role in defining the position of organization. Economic resources refers to the overall budget, stock and the shares of the organization which plays a central role in easing and defining the future and the current status of organization in terms of global market. Social factors refers to the factors that can incorporate and inculcate societal values and norms because organizational values play a central role in the grooming and approach of employees towards their job. It is one of the approaches that can attract more number of employees and help to restore the functionality of an organization.
There are some significant research themes in analyzing organizational behavior. It is more like a shift from the ways in which organization work and the employment is introduced with some new elements that are meant to establish the organization research work. Some significant topics of research are, new employment
New Employment relationship refers to mobility that is tied to the formation of new employment relationship in different industries as well as in specific terms. There is a global shift in the personal management practices which are evident such as decline in the seniority based wages in Japan. In addition, three is a decline in job security as well, coupled with a high performance demand in England as well as a high unemployment that prolog to postsecondary school education as well as apprenticeship in Germany. Then, Eastern Europe has also gone a strategic reorientation from placement with the support of centralized workforce planning and recruitment through labor markets. An insight into the employment of employment relationship reflect both, employment arrangement and the by-product of transition. Some major themes are availability of rewards available from the labor force participation and performance, understanding of new psychological contracts and the impacts of contract on equity.
The rewards that are the sole motivation of workforce participation and performance is significant such as career opportunities, fulfilling work and compensation. 组织行为学论文代写
Assessing rewards also include entails issues in terms of reward distribution its location and the essence of exchanges. Another major theme is reward distribution which infers locus of decision making in terms of resource allocation. Reward distribution is also significant where there is a potent control over firing, hiring and the other levels that appear to the decentralized so that responsiveness can be permitted to local market conditions. Then, assessment of wages is another major topic of discussion because reward based on seniority has been declined over time. Decentralizing personal decagons is also significant which means analyzing relationship between immediate superiors and the co-workers.
Another topic of discussion is inequality and the shifting of reward allocation because polls of public opinion in the United Sates observed that an optimistic attitude is found in 1960 in terms of economic success with a mitigation in the fear of losing affluence. In addition, workplace justice is considered to be a long standing topic in organizational research because of the increasing concerns and consequences of uneven transition. The, compensation research has also brought some significant topics on board such as issues in specific distribution, disparity between haves and have nots and shift in organizational hierarchies.
Understanding old dependent variables guided by new employment relationship is also significant in current organizational behavior. It is found that the new distinctions among categories such as core, peripheral, contingent and temporary workers have brought issued for micro-organizational behavior, and it studied the individual level responses. Commitment is also considered as one of the major behavioral components, also defined as the intention to remain in the company guided by positive motivation. 组织行为学论文代写
It also addresses other aspects such as employee organization relationship, ethical values and how these values are dependent on the organization and practiced by the employees in a positive way.
The organizational citizenship is one of the possible outcome of attribute such as trust and it is also influenced by the perceptions of prpecdural though not distributive fairness. With an increase in the competitive reassure, there is an evident increase on the performance demands and this variable to shift to “performance beyond expectations”. In reference to the organizational transition, there has been a significant shift in the types of behaviors which are investigated by the organization, where prime focus is given to the retributive citizenship and the negative citizenship.
Thus, it is found that several dimensions of study and investigation are introduced in the modern era. There are several reason of it, that range from the demands of the organizatiom to the shift in the attitude of the organizational stakeholders and the complexity in the worker-form relationship as compared to the appreciation and the negative consequences that can result in a shape from organization to the stance of organizing.
Organizational behavior in the present time is the product of different features such as, leadership, interference of the employer’s reduction of gap and distance between the employee and employer, incorporating diverse culture, adding opportunities of learning for employees in the form of workshops, training and other sessions that can add to the body of knowledge. Then, toady, organization is shifted to the stance of functionality where the regulation of human behavior is the primary source of achieving organizational goals.
Organizational behavior is an underlying feature of organization that adds to the completion of organization. It is one of the core elements of organization that has undergone several changes over the course of time. Generally, these shifts are divided into three stages but a critical insight infers that ever new day and every new week is bringing a shift in the organizational behavior because it is the code of conduct. A comparison from the past infers that the organizational behavior in the resent time is an accumulation of different resources, positive attitude, universal acceptance and the appreciation of employees as a central motivation for progression. Ina nutshell, organizational behavior has become more cumulative and multi-dimensional over the course of time, that has not only added to the organizational adherence but it is a positive source to restore economic, social, and potential progress.