社会研究论文代写 Gendered Occupations：Studies have established that, in the United States, women earn between 78 cents for every dollar earned by men.
Studies have established that, in the United States, women earn between 78 cents for every dollar earned by men. There are various factors that contribute to this wage disparity between men and women. These factors include; education, occupational segregation, race and ethnicity, geographical location, and career interruptions.
In the Unite State, the fields of electrical and electronic engineering gender wage gap still exist. The slow pace in absorption of women engineers and retain them has been a major concern and reason the representation of women in U.S. engineering as a whole has remained so low for so long. The enrollment of women for a bachelor degree in engineering has been on the rise in the recent past but it has remained the lowest proportions of bachelor’s degree awarded to women. According to the America Society for Engineering Education, the percentage of women in the engineering field has risen above 20% in recent years. However, traditional perceptions and society benefits among other factors continue to create wage differences.
研究表明，在美国，男性每赚 1 美元，女性就能赚 78 美分。造成这种男女工资差距的因素有很多。这些因素包括；教育、职业隔离、种族和民族、地理位置和职业中断。
在美国，电气和电子工程领域的性别工资差距仍然存在。女性工程师的吸收和保留速度缓慢一直是一个主要问题，也是长期以来女性在整个美国工程中的代表性一直如此之低的原因。近来，获得工程学学士学位的女性入学率一直在上升，但在授予女性的学士学位中，这一比例仍然是最低的。根据美国工程教育协会的数据，工程领域的女性比例近年来已上升至 20% 以上。然而，传统观念和社会福利等因素继续造成工资差异。
The studies have used multivariate regression analysis to explore the various potential explanations for the wage gap in the engineering careers. 社会研究论文代写
It was found that the salary gap is primarily explained by the fact that female engineers, on average, have fewer years of experience since their first baccalaureate degree than males; salaries of female and male engineers with similar years of experience are virtually the same. The National Science Foundation survey conducted on United States residents who were employed as full-time engineers. The findings showed that the median salary for women was 23 percent less than the median salary for men. This is consistent with other results that show that the earnings gap lessens significantly when women are compared with men with similar educational backgrounds and occupations.
Studies have explored how men and women differ in a number of variables which include education fields, employment segregation, geographic location, specialty in engineering, the highest education attained and experience gained among others. These factors help explain the gender wage difference among engineers. Below are the occupational characteristics of males and females in which they differ.
The difference in engineering education between men and women: Although most engineers earned engineering degrees, a smaller percentage of female engineers had earned engineering degrees than male engineers (65 percent of women vs. 78 percent of men). It means that women have other career preferences due to the social perceptions and the field being associated with men. This greatly contributes to the lower wage earned by women engineers.
男性和女性在工程教育方面的差异：尽管大多数工程师获得了工程学位，但获得工程学位的女性工程师的比例低于男性工程师（女性为 65%，男性为 78%）。这意味着由于社会观念和与男性相关的领域，女性有其他职业偏好。这极大地导致了女性工程师的工资较低。
Men and women tend to work in different jobs.
This lead to occupational segregation which is one of the primary cause of the gender pay gap. Despite the numerous campaigns towards equality and equal opportunities in engineering occupational segregation still, hold most women back over the last century. This has led to the dominance of men in the field of engineering. Some of the drivers of occupational segregation include confidence, family plans, a sense of career fit, and external encouragements.
The engineering specialty: The one specialty that showed greater female concentration is computer software engineering. There are 30 percent women compared to 20 percent of men in the field of specialization. Other fields of electrical and electronic engineering and mechanical engineering show male dominance with 15 percent women versus 27 percent men and 10 percent women versus 18 percent men respectively.
The level of experience: Higher percentages of female engineers were found among those with 12 or fewer years of experience. On average, women in engineering occupations had five fewer years’ experience than men. As expected, salary levels increase with years of experience. Further, the rate at which salary increases with experience is the same for men and women.
工程专业：女性集中度较高的一个专业是计算机软件工程。在专业领域，女性占 30%，而男性占 20%。电气和电子工程以及机械工程的其他领域显示男性占主导地位，女性占 15%，男性占 27%，女性占 10%，男性占 18%。
经验水平：在具有 12 年或以下经验的人中发现女性工程师的比例更高。平均而言，从事工程行业的女性比男性少 5 年的工作经验。正如预期的那样，工资水平会随着工作经验的增加而增加。此外，男性和女性的工资随经验增加的速度相同。
Another effect contributor of the wage gap is the career interruptions.
Mostly, women’s careers are interrupted by the family obligations and child care. Women tend to give priority to taking care of their family over a career which makes them fall behind. Most women are even forced to leave their jobs because of children obligations and family pressures. As a result, the gender wage gap continues to persist in the engineering fields.
To encourage more women to enroll for engineering and take active parts in the job and career development affirmative actions and sensitization are required. These will encourage them to be pro-active beyond the society beliefs and perceptions associated with the field. Further, with more and more women in these fields will help in bargaining power for more, equal and better pay. More women involvement in engineering will bridge the gender wage gaps that exist today.
大多数情况下，女性的职业生涯被家庭义务和照顾孩子所打断。 女性倾向于优先考虑照顾家庭而不是使她们落后的职业。 大多数妇女甚至因为孩子的义务和家庭压力而被迫离职。 因此，工程领域的性别工资差距继续存在。
为了鼓励更多女性报名参加工程并积极参与工作和职业发展，需要采取平权行动和提高敏感性。 这些将鼓励他们积极主动地超越与该领域相关的社会信仰和观念。 此外，随着越来越多的女性在这些领域工作，将有助于获得更多、平等和更好的薪酬的讨价还价能力。 更多女性参与工程将弥合当今存在的性别工资差距。