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社会文化论文代写 种族主义论文代写

2021-06-21 15:40 星期一 所属: Essay代写 浏览:93


The Stranger Phenomenon



The Stranger Phenomenon

社会文化论文代写 The United States of America is a multicultural nation and hence calls for the favor of a socially equitable and culturally diverse society.

The United States of America is a multicultural nation and hence calls for the favor of a socially equitable and culturally diverse society. Nevertheless, the native culture, their identity, and concerns could not be ignored as the rise of white nationalist intensifies (Rahman, 2019). Charlottesville violence was a mark of a heated and escalated social differences as well as desperation with various social facets in seeking identity and recognition. The incident and responses to it can be explained in terms of the stranger phenomenon, the social distance theory, and ethnocentrism perspectives.


美利坚合众国是一个多元文化的国家,因此呼吁建立一个社会公平和文化多元化的社会。 然而,随着白人民族主义的兴起,本土文化、他们的身份和担忧不容忽视(Rahman,2019)。 夏洛茨维尔暴力事件标志着社会分歧的激烈和升级,以及对寻求身份和认可的各种社会方面的绝望。 事件及其反应可以用陌生人现象、社会距离理论和种族中心主义观点来解释。


According to Rita Watson.

The stranger phenomenon seems counter-intuitive as people interact with those people who they do not share a common culture or social group (Watson, 2014). It is the interaction that happens between two strangers which at that juncture turnout to be a trustworthy confidant. Perhaps a way to break through the awkward silence or to vents so that to clear consciously, people use these insulated interactions more often. However, Charlottesville violence did not depict this when both extremes groups (white nationalists and counter-protestors) viewed each other as not only strangers but also enemies of social progression. Instead, they resorted to violence to vent their anger toward each other. The hate for miscegenation, multiculturalism, and immigration propagated by white nationalists could have sparked the incident.


根据丽塔·沃森的说法  社会文化论文代写

陌生人现象似乎违反直觉,因为人们与那些他们没有共同文化或社会群体的人互动(Watson,2014)。 正是两个陌生人之间发生的互动,在那个时刻成为值得信赖的知己。 也许是打破尴尬的沉默或发泄以便有意识地清除的一种方式,人们更频繁地使用这些绝缘的互动。 然而,当两个极端团体(白人民族主义者和反抗议者)不仅将彼此视为陌生人,而且将对方视为社会进步的敌人时,夏洛茨维尔的暴力事件并没有描绘出这一点。 相反,他们诉诸暴力来发泄对彼此的愤怒。 白人民族主义者对异族通婚、多元文化主义和移民的仇恨可能引发了这一事件。

Similarly, the social difference between various groups in the United States might have instigated the violence.

Crossman in her article in ThoughtCo explained that Social Distance “is a measure of social separation between groups caused by perceived or real differences between groups pf people as defined by well-known social groups” (Crossman, 2019). Social categories such as economic status, education level, race and ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, among others, caused the violence. As such, people tend to be associated with those they identify with socially and stay away from those that are different from them.

It is what happened in Charlottesville. One dominant group felt that it should not be treated the same as the rest who are mostly non-natives. Due to perceived differences in language, color, educations, culture etc., the group claim dominance over others. Their concerns were fears of losing their cultural identity due to encroachment by foreign customs. These claims were justified to certain extend until they turned violent. However, U.S. is a multicultural society, and ethnocultural differences call for more equitable society. Thus, such incidences were unjustified from both ends.


同样,美国不同群体之间的社会差异可能煽动了暴力。 社会文化论文代写

Crossman 在她在 ThoughtCo 的文章中解释说,社会距离“是衡量群体之间社会分离的一个指标,由知名社会群体所定义的群体之间的感知或真实差异引起的”(Crossman,2019 年)。经济地位、教育水平、种族和民族、文化、性取向等社会类别导致了暴力。因此,人们倾向于与他们在社会上认同的人联系在一起,并远离与他们不同的人。


Moreover, ethnocentrism was evident in responses, especially from President Donald Trump.

Ethnocentrism is the idea that the cultural group that one belongs to is objectively superior to other cultural groups (Patterson, 2016). Trump’s statement that mentioned violence on “many sides” was subject to scrutiny (Rascoe, 2018). The statement was vague about who he was condemning. Instead, Trump gave vagaries and innuendos that did not help the worsening social rift. He had the chance to lay blame on white nationalist and their propagation of hate in the United States. Trump went on to generalize the cause of violence and placed blame on criminals and thugs who included KKK, neo-nazi, and other hate groups. Further, he went on to give equal responsibility on both sides. These controversial responses which seemed to contradict his perennial racist comments were mere political rhetoric.

Although people see others and situations differently, cultural and social differences are not as bad. People should learn to appreciate diversity and forge mutual existence where everyone benefits. After all, we are uniquely created and distinctively gifted in ways that make us complementary to one another.


此外,种族中心主义在回应中很明显,尤其是唐纳德特朗普总统。 社会文化论文代写

民族中心主义是一种观点,即一个人所属的文化群体在客观上优于其他文化群体(Patterson,2016 年)。特朗普提到“多方面”暴力的声明受到审查(Rascoe,2018 年)。该声明对于他谴责的对象含糊其辞。取而代之的是,特朗普的反复无常和影射无助于日益恶化的社会裂痕。他有机会指责白人民族主义者和他们在美国传播仇恨。特朗普继续概括暴力的原因,并将责任归咎于包括 KKK、新纳粹和其他仇恨团体在内的罪犯和暴徒。此外,他继续赋予双方同等的责任。这些有争议的回应似乎与他常年的种族主义言论相矛盾,只是政治言论。


References  社会文化论文代写

Crossman, A. (2019). Definition and examples of social distance in psychology. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/social-distance-3026589

Patterson, J. (2016). Trump’s ethnocentrism will bring voters to the polls, pro and con. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2016/05/26/trumps-ethnocentrism-will-bring-voters-to-the-polls-pro-and-con/

Rascoe, A. (2018). A year after Charlottesville, not much has changed for Trump. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/08/11/637665414/a-year-after-charlottesville-not-much-has-changed-for-trump

Rahman, A. (2019). Rise of white nationalists is alarming. Gulf News. Retrieved from https://gulfnews.com/opinion/op-eds/rise-of-white-nationalists-is-alarming-1.65949999

Watson, R. (2014). Trapped by the Stranger on the Train Phenomenon. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/love-and-gratitude/201401/trapped-the-stranger-the-train-phenomenon


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