Wicked Problems and Policies
Wicked Problems and Policies
Reflection Questions on “The Northern Territory Interventions”
社会政策代写 Question 1 The film by Nimmo (2008, the government learned about the abuse of girls in Aborigine communities through a report published by ···
The film by Nimmo (2008, the government learned about the abuse of girls in Aborigine communities through a report published by Pat Anderson and Rex Wild called “The Little Children are Sacred.” This report paints gruesome events that have happened in the remote areas of the Aborigine community, but most of the cases went unreported or just ignored. Another determinant is their remoteness and being marginalized groups in Australia. The Aborigines people saw this as a discriminatory approach to solve the social problem through collective impact. As a result, the Howard government intervened by quarantining the communities. This intervention aimed at controlling the incomes and expenditures, land ownership, tenancies, children support and health, et cetera (Nimmo).
Nimmo拍摄的电影（2008年，政府通过Pat Anderson和Rex Wild发布的名为“小孩子是神圣的”的报告了解了土著社区中女童的虐待情况。该报告描绘了在偏远地区发生的可怕事件。 原住民社区，但大多数案件没有报告或只是被忽略了。另一个决定因素是他们在澳大利亚的偏远和被边缘化群体。原住民认为这是通过集体影响解决社会问题的歧视性方法。 霍华德政府通过隔离社区进行干预，旨在控制收入和支出，土地所有权，租约，儿童抚养费和医疗费用等（Nimmo）。
According to the book “Tackling Wicked Problems” published by Australian Government (2007), the wicked problem is so because of a combination of social complexities both external and internal to the specified problem with no explicit approach to get a solution. In this regard, Aborigine social problem can be termed wicked looking at the various factors contributing to the problem and the interventions that were put in place. Instead of solving the problem of girls’ sexual abuse, it created other issues of racial discrimination and restriction to liberty and freedom.
根据澳大利亚政府（2007年）出版的《解决邪恶的问题》一书，邪恶的问题之所以如此，是因为特定问题外部和内部的社会复杂性相结合，而没有明确的解决方案。 在这方面，土著人民的社会问题可以被视为邪恶的，因为它是导致该问题的各种因素以及所采取的干预措施的结果。 它没有解决女孩遭受性虐待的问题，而是创造了种族歧视和限制自由与自由的其他问题。
The NT intervention applied the authoritative approach in that all the communities were forced to abide by the legislation and rules laid to curb the problem that the Howard government intended to solve. As such the community did not have any chance of negotiation for any room for reconciliation with the social problem. In such a case, the most effective approach to solving a wicked problem is a collaborative approach (“Australian Government,” 2007). This approach uses a win-win view to the problem solving and involve all the stakeholders for the sustained behavioral change.
北领地干预采用了权威性方法，因为所有社区都被迫遵守为遏制霍华德政府打算解决的问题而制定的立法和规则。 因此，社区没有任何机会与社会问题进行和解。 在这种情况下，解决邪恶问题的最有效方法是协作方法（“澳大利亚政府”，2007年）。 这种方法使用双赢的观点来解决问题，并使所有利益相关者参与进来，以实现持续的行为改变。
The NT Intervention of 2007 brought draconian control to the Aborigine communities. Regardless of the intervention program having consumed large budget and good intention of solving the identified social problem, according to Dudgeon et al. (2010), it also brought about negative social impacts to the Aborigine people. Some of the problems created are; alienation of children from their parents and culture. This deprived them of parental care and the right to exercise their cultural practice.
Another problem was the intervention to the housing program which saw overcrowding in the available houses. This further aggravated the problem of spreading of diseases and poverty. The poverty level notwithstanding, the government income management made their life harder because they were only left with 50% to take care of their daily needs. This caused frustrations leading to depression of majority of parents (Nimmo, 2008). The discriminatory alcohol control did not prove useful as many could go the nearest town get lost in alcoholism. More to this, the government action to stop Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) lead to massive unemployment. These trends led frustrations, depressions, alcoholism, poverty and eventually, most people ended up in jail or committing suicide.
The work of Laverack (2013) illuminate broadly on the issue of a health practitioner being an activist of good health to the people. There roles are defined within the realm of the clients or community they serve and ethics. In empowering the people on health, first the they have to come up with strategies to empower themselves. In this regard, the balance between their work and power, limited by the ethics in their practice.
The principle can be applied in my line of work by realizing the role I play in serving the people. In that context, I have to define what to do and not to depending on the willingness of the client. However, within the limits of my role and ethics of practice, I have the power to act on issues for the interest of the people I serve. To solve the wicked problem of Aborigine people, I could have used collaborative approach in which I will have involved the community, health practitioners, administration and interest group to have a multidimensional approach to the problem aiming to have a win-win solution.
Altman, C. (2007). The Howard government’s Northern Territory intervention: Are neo-paternalism and indigenous development compatible? Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, 58(16)
Australian Government. (2007). Tackling wicked problems (1st ed., pp. 1-37). Canberra: Australian Public Service Commission.
Dudgeon, P., Wright, M., Paradies, Y., Garvey, D. & Walker, I. (2010) The Social, Cultural and Historical Context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. In Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Wellbeing Principles and Practice., ed. Purdie, N., Dudgeon, P. & Walker, R., 25-42. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.
Laverack, G. (2013). Health activism: Foundations and strategies London: SAGE Publications Ltd, DOI: 10.4135/9781446270004
Nimmo, J. (2008). Intervention, Katherine, N.T. [Film]. Australia: Ronin Film.