Life History – Research Paper
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Life History – Research Paper
社会学研究论文代写 In sociology, social structure refers to the steady arrangement of various social institutions according to which people communicate
In sociology, social structure refers to the steady arrangement of various social institutions according to which people communicate with each other, behave, and spend their lives. Usually, social structure is considered in relation to social change, which primarily focuses on the elements that could change the society’s existing norms and behaviour and social structure (Nadel, 2013). It makes a society and keeps it together with organised set of relationships.社会学研究论文代写
Social structure not only helps in directly determining social instruction but is also a product of it. Social structure affects every part of a person’s life and life experiences, but it is generally not visible to any observer. This paper is going to study how social structure and social processes affects a person’s life by analysing the life of an elderly person. An interview with an elderly person has been conducted for the purpose of this study – after obtaining her consent – but she requested her real name not to be made part of the study so hereinafter that elderly person will be referred to as Ms. Lee.
Elderly Person’s Profile
Ms. Lee, now a widow, is a Chinese-Canadian. She lives with her son and two grandchildren in a very good home that belongs to Ms.Lee and her husband. She was born in China and at the age of 8, she along with her parents moved to Canada. Her initial schooling was done in China, so during her early years in Canada, she faced a lot of language barriers as she couldn’t speak, read, or write English properly. She’s been bullied by a few during her initial school years but that led her to make some really great friends who Ms.社会学研究论文代写
Lee claims were always by her side – one is still in touch she recalls. Ms. Lee met her future spouse during her college years, he came from China to study. They got married and had a fairly happy life, but faced bit ups and downs, which Ms. Lee faced because she has completely adopted Canadian culture and her husband held onto his Chinese culture – where gender equality is still a distant dream.社会学研究论文代写
Due to this cultural diversity within their home – Ms. Lee faced a few problems but learnt a great deal about the importance of it. She taught her kids to respect other human and celebrate individuality no matter where they are. About her interaction in the society, she says that it is very rare for her to face any kind of racist comments or something, but when she was young she used to face some rude comments about her nationality or looks at least once in every quarter.
How Ms. Lee’s experiences are affected by larger social processes and structural forces?
She was raised in a family that was not completely open to adopting Canadian culture and wanted to keep their own culture intact as well. This is a problem most of the immigrants face when they immigrate to a new country. But Ms. Lee and her family started to adopt the culture after realizing that this is the best way to become an active part of this society. They started interacting with people within their community and outside and exchange ideas. The increased social interaction helped Ms. Lee and her parents to transition to Canadian culture more easily.社会学研究论文代写
Social interaction is a social process, which is the manner in which the relations of every member of the society when viewed together appear to be of a different character (Thibaut, 2017). According to Sherif (2017), social processes of a society mean availability of different channels of interactions among groups or individuals including but not limited to conflict, integration, cooperation, development, decay, and arrest. There are hundreds of social processes a society may use, but on a larger scale they affect the life experiences of every person living in the society (Nadel, 2013). Ms. Lee and her family couldn’t have adopted the culture of another land if it wasn’t for the social processes that were there. At large, they felt welcome, valued, respected, and recognized – a few traits of Canadian culture known to the world.
社会互动是一个社会过程，即社会中每个成员的关系在共同观察时似乎具有不同特征的方式（Thibaut，2017）。根据 Sherif (2017) 的说法，一个社会的社会进程意味着群体或个人之间不同渠道互动的可用性，包括但不限于冲突、融合、合作、发展、衰败和逮捕。一个社会可能会使用数百种社会过程，但在更大范围内，它们会影响生活在社会中的每个人的生活体验（Nadel，2013）。如果没有那里的社会进程，李女士和她的家人不可能接受另一片土地的文化。总的来说，他们感到受到欢迎、重视、尊重和认可——这是世界所知的加拿大文化的一些特征。
Sociological Theory on Life History
With the application of sociological perspectives to aging, one can identify the factors that affect an individual’s life and understand the structure of a society as well as its processes. After interviewing Ms. Lee for this research paper, it has become evident that an elderly person who have migrated from one country to another has multiple aspects of life, which if explored can help understand not just one but two different cultures and their social processes. There are three perspectives sociologists apply to the aging process including disengagement theory, activity theory, and conflict theory. According to Barkan (2011), disengagement theory argues that for younger generation to take on responsibility and important roles, it is important for a society to encourage its older generation to disengage and let go of their previous roles.社会学研究论文代写
Disengagement theory also presents the view point that older people should take on roles that are appropriate for them as per their physical and mental health (Bengtson & Settersten, 2016). In the process of aging, this theory provides a functionalist application. If Ms. Lee’s life experiences are to be analysed using this process, it can be said that it suits her aging process completely.
通过将社会学观点应用于老龄化，人们可以确定影响个人生活的因素，并了解社会的结构及其过程。在为这篇研究论文采访了李女士后，很明显，从一个国家迁移到另一个国家的老年人有生活的多个方面，如果对其进行探索，不仅可以帮助了解一种，而且可以帮助了解两种不同的文化及其社会过程。社会学家将三种观点应用于衰老过程，包括脱离理论、活动理论和冲突理论。根据 Barkan (2011) 的说法，脱离理论认为，对于年轻一代来说，要承担起责任和重要角色，一个社会必须鼓励老一代脱离并放弃他们以前的角色。
脱离理论还提出了这样一种观点，即老年人应该根据他们的身心健康承担适合他们的角色（Bengtson & Settersten，2016 年）。在衰老过程中，该理论提供了功能主义的应用。如果用这个过程来分析李女士的身世，可以说完全符合她的衰老过程。
She has taken the role of grandmother and looks after her grandchildren in the absence of their parents.
At this age, her mental and physical health does not allow her to take on a role that demands too much energy or focus. Thus, she prefers staying at home and using her experience to guide her kids and grandkids. However, before reaching the age of retirement, Ms. Lee was active in community work and had a good job, but she let all these roles go and thus fits perfectly to the definition of disengagement theory.
According to Katz & Calasanti (2014), activity theory argues that if older people remain active even in that age, then it will benefit not only them but the society as well. However, for older people to stay active and contribute to the society, they need to have a positive life perception. In the process of aging, this theory provides an interactionist explanation of it (Bengtson & Settersten, 2016).社会学研究论文代写
If Ms. Lee’s life experiences are analysed using this theory, then it also suits her. She’s still active and doing what she can to make sure her family stays healthy and happy. She has a positive perception about life, because according to her the most memorable moment of her life was the birth of her grandchild, and now she’s still positive to see her grandchild grow into an adult. She is active in her life. She cooks, teaches her grandchildren, and hangs out with her friends.
根据 Katz & Calasanti (2014) 的说法，活动理论认为，如果老年人在那个年龄仍然保持活跃，那么不仅他们自己而且社会也会受益。然而，老年人要想保持活跃并为社会做出贡献，他们需要有积极的生活观。在衰老过程中，该理论提供了一种相互作用的解释（Bengtson & Settersten，2016）。
As per the conflict theory, elderly people have to face discrimination and prejudice on the basis of their age.
There are various inequalities that elderly people have to face because of their social class, gender, race, and ethnicity. This theory not only defines the aging process but is also linked to the general theory of conflict in the society Barkan (2011). In her early 30s, Ms. Lee did experience some instances where she thinks have been discriminated because of her race.社会学研究论文代写
She still thinks that due to her social class and age, which falls under the upper middle class, she sometimes get these strange looks. The judgemental looks as per Ms. Lee “make you feel uncomfortable in your own skin” It’s like I being a person of a different race living in Canada am not entitled to have the luxury that I have even at this age.” But these instances are not common, so Ms. Lee doesn’t pay heed to such conflicts, but it does add to her life experiences.
Plainly speaking, these three sociological perspectives on aging are applicable on almost every person’s life experience. During one’s course of life, a person faces various things, interacts with people of different race, sex, or religion, and engages with different segment of the society. Everybody in a society is entitled to their opinions and thoughts, which do get affects by the larger social process but on a smaller scale every person is different. Ms. Lee’s life experience makes one thing very clear that Canada was and is a tolerant and inclusive country where diversity is appreciated and individuality is celebrated.
由于社会阶层、性别、种族和民族，老年人必须面对各种不平等。该理论不仅定义了衰老过程，而且还与社会中的一般冲突理论相关联（2011 年）。在 30 岁出头的时候，李女士确实经历过一些她认为因种族而受到歧视的情况。
她仍然认为，由于她属于中上阶层的社会阶层和年龄，她有时会看到这些奇怪的表情。 Lee 女士的判断力“让你对自己的皮肤感到不舒服”就像我是一个生活在加拿大的不同种族的人一样，即使在这个年龄，我也没有资格拥有我所拥有的奢侈品。”但这些情况并不常见，所以李女士并没有注意到这种冲突，但它确实增加了她的生活经历。
说白了，这三种关于衰老的社会学观点几乎适用于每个人的生活经历。在人的一生中，要面对各种各样的事物，与不同种族、不同性别、不同宗教的人交往，接触社会的不同阶层。社会中的每个人都有权发表自己的意见和想法，这确实会受到更大的社会进程的影响，但在较小的范围内每个人都是不同的。 Lee 女士的生活经历让一件事非常清楚地表明，加拿大过去是并且现在是一个宽容和包容的国家，在这个国家中，尊重多样性并推崇个性。
It is complete true that social structure is made of various social components working together and forms of established relationships, but it is important that social structure be identified in the contemporary environment as social networks, which connect one person with another and affects our life experience. The analysis of the interview made one thing clear that there are various aspects of a person’s life experiences – and sometime it become impossible to analyse the life experiences with just one theory or paradigm. Every person’s life experiences have different facets and can be understood if a combination of various theories is applied to that person’s life experiences.
诚然，社会结构是由各种共同运作的社会成分和已建立的关系形式组成的，但重要的是，在当代环境中，社会结构被确定为社会网络，它将人与人联系起来并影响我们的生活体验。 采访的分析清楚地表明，一个人的生活经历有很多方面——有时仅用一种理论或范式来分析生活经历是不可能的。 每个人的生活经历都有不同的方面，如果将各种理论组合应用于该人的生活经历，则可以理解。
Barkan, S. E. (2011). Sociology: Understanding and changing the social world. Flat World Knowledge, Incorporated.
Bengtson, V. L., & Settersten Jr, R. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of theories of aging. Springer Publishing Company.
Katz, S., & Calasanti, T. (2014). Critical perspectives on successful aging: Does it “appeal more than it illuminates”?. The Gerontologist, 55(1), 26-33.
Nadel, S. F. (2013). The theory of social structure. Routledge.
Sherif, M. (2017). Social interaction: Process and products. Routledge.
Thibaut, J. W. (2017). The social psychology of groups. Routledge.