Semester One 2022
Mid-Semester Test (MST)
澳大利亚留学生代考 A STATA do (.do) file that records the commands that correspond to the answers you provide for the relevant questions.
UNIT CODE: ECC2400/ECX2400
UNIT TITLE: Design and Evaluation of Economic, Public, and Social Programs
ASSESSMENT DUE: 5:00pm (AEST), 29/4/2022
- This is an individual assessment task.
- You are required to answer all Make sure you read the instructions on carefully.
- This assessment accounts for 20% of the total in the unit.
- Upon completion of this assessment task, please upload the following documents to Moodle using the assignment submission link (use your Monash 8-digit student IDnumber as the filename):
i.This document that includes your signature and date (on next page).
ii.Written responses to allquestions in a separate word document (a .docx or .doc file).
iii.A do (.do) file that records the commands that correspond to the answers you provide for the relevant questions. 澳大利亚留学生代考
iv.A STATA log (.log) file that records the results/commands displayed in STATA’s results display window.
- Your submission must occur no later than 5:00pm on 29/4/2022 (Australian Eastern Standard Time)
Please read the next page carefully and sign and date the Student Statement before commencing the assessment task.
Intentional plagiarism or collusion amounts to cheating under Part 7 of the Monash University (Council) Regulations
Plagiarism: Plagiarism means taking and using another person’s ideas or manner of expressing them and passing them off as one’s own. For example, by failing to give appropriate acknowledgment. The material used can be from any source (staff, students or the internet, published and unpublished works).
Collusion: Collusion means unauthorised collaboration with another person on assessable written, oral or practical work and includes paying another person to complete all or part of the work.
Where there are reasonable grounds for believing that intentional plagiarism or collusion has occurred, this will be reported to the Associate Dean (Education) or delegate, who may disallow the work concerned by prohibiting assessment or refer the matter to the Faculty Discipline Panel for a hearing.
· I have read the university’s Student Academic Integrity Policy and Procedures.
· I understand the consequences of engaging in plagiarism and collusion as described in Part 7 of the Monash University (Council) Regulations https://www.monash.edu/legal/legislation/current-statute-regulations-and-related-resolutions
· I have taken proper care to safeguard this work and made all reasonable efforts to ensure it could not be copied.
· I have not used any unauthorised materials in the completion of this assessment task.
· No part of this assessment has been previously submitted as part of another unit/course. 澳大利亚留学生代考
· I acknowledge and agree that the assessor of this assessment task may for the purposes of assessment, reproduce the assessment and:
i. provide to another member of faculty and any external marker; and/or
ii. submit it to a text-matching software; and/or
iii. submit it to a text-matching software which may then retain a copy of the assessment on its database for the purpose of future plagiarism checking.
· I certify that I have not plagiarised the work of others or participated in unauthorised collaboration when preparing this assessment.
|Signature: (Type your full name)|
Privacy Statement 澳大利亚留学生代考
The information on this form is collected for the primary purpose of assessing your assessment and ensuring the academic integrity requirements of the University are met. Other purposes of collection include recording your plagiarism and collusion declaration, attending to the course and administrative matters and statistical analyses. If you choose not to complete all the questions on this form it may not be possible for Monash University to assess your assessment task. You have a right to access personal information that Monash University holds about you, subject to any exceptions in relevant legislation. If you wish to seek access to your personal information or inquire about the handling of your personal information, please contact the University Privacy Officer: [email protected]h.edu.au
|MARKS ALLOCATED TO THE PARTS WITHIN THIS ASSESSMENT TASK|
|Official Use Only 澳大利亚留学生代考|
- When you submit your answers on Moodle, you must include the following documents (all saved using your Monash 8-digit student IDnumber as the filename):
i.This document with your signature and date included (p.2). You get 0 for this assessment if you fail to do so.
Please name the file using your Monash 8-digit student ID to replace YOURID as follows:
ii.A word document (.docx or .doc file) that provides answers responding to the questions in this examination paper. Font size must be 12 points and font style must be Calibri. All answers and pages must be properly numbered/labelled. Please name the file using your Monash 8-digit student ID to replace YOURID as follows:
iii.A STATA do file (.do file) that provides all the commands to generate the answers you provide for the relevant questions. For questions that do not require the use of STATA to answer, there is no need to provide the commands. Please name the file using your Monash 8-digit student ID to replace YOURID as follows:
iv.A STATA log file (.log file) that provides all the results displayed on your STATA main display after running the do file. For questions that do not require the use of STATA to answer, there will be no corresponding STATA commands/results reported. Please name the file using your Monash 8-digit student ID to replace YOURID as follows: 澳大利亚留学生代考
If documents (iii) and (iv) are not submitted together with documents (i) and (ii) by the due date of this assessment task, your MST marks will be scaled by a factor of 0.5. For example, if you score 50 marks by answering all the questions in document (ii), your overall MST marks will be 25 (or 5 out of 20). You get zero for your MST if none of these four documents are submitted by the due date.
2.This MST paper includes ONE question that contains several parts.
To answer the question, you are required to download the data file “MST_2022.xlsx” from Moodle and use STATA SE available on MoVE (my.monash.edu) to import the data to perform the relevant analyses.
3.To answer the question, you are required to first set a “seed” number that is identical to your 8-digit Monash student ID before you draw an i.i.d. random sample to answer the question in STATA SE. You will be penalised for not setting the correct seed number to draw an i.i.d. sample of the correct sample size. Failure to follow this particular requirement will result in the total marks being scaled by a factor of 0.5. For example, if you score 60 marks for your answers but you did not set the correct seed number and draw the correct i.i.d. random sample in the first place, the marks you obtain for the MST will be 30. 澳大利亚留学生代考
4.When you perform any hypothesis testing (two-sided test using the t-statistics method), use the 5% level of statistical significance and assume that the Central Limit Theorem applies.
Question: A randomised natural experiment [100 points]
For decades before 2010, high school students residing in various metropolitan areas of South Korea were assigned randomly into high schools in their school districts under the “Equalisation Policy” that the Korean government implemented. These high schools are either operated by the school districts (i.e., government-run schools) or by privately owned school corporations (i.e., privately-operated schools). These government-run and privately-operated schools can also be single-sex or coeducational.
The random assignment of students into high schools is an important feature of the “Equalisation Policy”. The education department first assigned each student with a random ID and then allocated them into various high schools within their school district according to their random ID sequence (by gender). 澳大利亚留学生代考
The random assignment process occurred after the students completed their grade 9 (the last year of middle school) and before they started their grade 10 (the first year of high school). Unless they dropped out of high school, these students would attend the same high school until they completed their grade 12 (the final year of high school). There were very few students who dropped out of high school in Korea Importantly, the dropout rates are statistically similar across schools.
Students in all types of schools were required to pay the same (small) amount of fees and all schools were funded equally by the government.
The main difference between government-run and privately-operated schools is that school district offices are in charge of the personnel decisions of government-run schools, while private school corporations are in charge of the personnel decisions of privately-operated schools.
In government-run high schools, teachers and principals are rotated into different schools every few years (typically every four to eight years), regardless of their performance. In privately-operated high schools, teachers and principals tend to stay for a long time if they perform well. As students are randomly assigned into schools, the policies, such as after-school class hours provided by the school and tracking or ability grouping of students into different classrooms, which are implemented by different school principals can also be thought of as treatments assigned randomly to students.
You are required to use the data contained in the spreadsheet “Data” in the EXCEL file “MST_2022.xlsx” to answer this following question.
The spreadsheet “Data” contains XX schools in Korea. The variables in this data set include:
- homeowner: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the student’s parents owned their home, and 0 otherwise.
- pop_hed: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the student’s father had attended university.
- mom_hed: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the student’s mother had attended university.
- highincome: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the student’s family income is in the top 50 percentile, and 0 otherwise. 澳大利亚留学生代考
- tracking: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the high school the student attended grouped students into classes by academic performance, and 0 otherwise.
- aschrs: a continuous variable that measures the average number of school-provided after school hours the student attended during high school each week.
- S1: a standardized test score variable.
- T1: a standardized test score variable.
- uni: a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the student entered into a four-year university after finishing high school.
A.[20 points] You must first use STATA to draw an i.i.d. sample of 450individuals from the data (in sheet “Data”) you have imported into STATA to answer this question. Make sure you “set seed” correctly before drawing the i.i.d. sample of 450 individuals.
Assume the 450 observations you have drawn are the population. Construct a table of joint and marginal probabilities of the variables “homeowner” and “highincome.” Once you have constructed the table, manually compute the population covariance between “homeowner” and “highincome” and interpret what the covariance means.
To get full credits, you must: (a) you must include the relevant STATA steps in the appropriate documents (e.g., do file) for parts that require the use of STATA; and (b) report the table that shows the joint and marginal probabilities of the two variables; (c) show the relevant steps to compute the covariance of the two variables; and (d) interpret the covariance.
B.[25 points] You must use STATA to draw a newi.d. sample of 400individuals from the original dataset of 480 individuals to answer this question. Make sure you “set seed” correctly before drawing the i.i.d. sample of 400 individuals.
In the data set, there is more than one variable that describe the social economic background of a student. Most students’ social economic situations did not change between their middle school and high school years. 澳大利亚留学生代考
Use each of these social economic background variables to check whether the data are consistent with the fact that the students were randomly assigned into schools that provided different hours of after school classes. Check them by running regressions first and then report the estimates and standard errors by filling in the following table.
Table: Verification of random assignment in Var 1
|Var 2||Var 3||Var 4||Var 5|
|( )||( )||( )||( )|
|( )||( )||( )||( )|
Notes: Var 1, Var 2, Var 3, Var 4, and Var 5 should be replaced with the appropriate variable names. Robust standard errors are reported in parentheses. Estimates should be reported in the blank spaces provided. Estimates that are statistically significant at the 5% level should be indicated with **.
Make sure you explain whether the results are consistent with randomisation after reporting them in the table above. Is it possible for any of the relevant estimates to be inconsistent with randomisation even if students were indeed randomised into schools? Why?
C. 澳大利亚留学生代考[15 points] According to your sample in part B, is there any evidence that more hours of after school classes enable high school graduates to enter into a four-year university? Why? You must perform the appropriate regression, do the relevant hypothesis test, interpret the estimates, and explain the answer to get full credit.
D.[20 points] All students in the sample took a standardized test at the end of grade 9 (the final year in their middle school). They also took some standardized tests near the end of their grade 11 (almost two years after entering high school). Unfortunately, the person who prepared the data for you did not name the standardized test variables properly. It is unclear which of the two test score variables, S1 and T1, provides the mean grade 9 (middle school) standardized test scores of students in each high school.
Knowing the information provided so far and the answers to parts B and C, are you able to identify which of them (S1 or T1) is the mean grade 9 standardized test scores? If so, which one and why? If not, why not? [Hint: you need to run regressions in STATA to figure out the answer].
E.[10 points] A researcher presented the findings based on this Korean dataset at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics organised by the World Bank. A number of delegates from various developing countries question whether the findings can be used to inform policies that aim to improve educational outcomes of students in low-income or lower-middle-income countries. Although you do not have the data from developing countries, can you use the Korean data and tailor the regression in part C to answer their question? Explain your answer and the assumption(s) made.
F.[10 points] A senior economist at the World Bank’s Development Research Group questions whether you could attribute the improved students’ outcomes to longer hours of after school classes. She argued that it was possible that other strategies that school principals run rather than after school classes that led to the higher likelihood of university attendance. One particular strategy that she noted was the implementation of tracking (or ability grouping). Are students getting more hours of after school classes also those who attended schools that tracked students by ability? Are you able to convince her that after school classes improve students’ outcomes? Explain your answer with the help of regression(s).