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教育学英文论文代写 Education代写

2021-11-02 09:53 星期二 所属: Essay代写 浏览:44




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教育学英文论文代写 However, by making higher priority as a key priority, the government can achieve the objective without even seeking external assistance.

Public College Education should be free for a better Economy

While the number of countries offering free college education has been increasing over the last three decades, the average cost of higher education in the US has been rising. Today, the US has the most expensive private colleges in the world and the second most expensive public universities after Australia. As noted by Samuels (9), the author of the book Public Higher Education Should Be Free: How to Decrease Cost and Increase Quality at American Universities, the average annual cost of higher education at private colleges in the US in 1980 was approximately 20% of the median family income (Samuels 9).  教育学英文论文代写

By 2011, the cost had risen to 50%. At public colleges, the cost rose from 4% to 11%. In 2010, the yearly average cost of higher education at private colleges was $32,307. The cost was $13,589 at state colleges. Private colleges offering boarding facilities are the most expensive of all. In 2011, the yearly cost of higher education at Notre Dame was $51,300. At Harvard and Stanford, the cost was $48,868 and $49,000 respectively. In my view, there is likelihood that college enrollment rate in the US will reduce in the future due to the high cost if the current trend continues. Arguably, lower enrollment to higher education will have negative consequences to the US such as increased gap between the rich and the poor, reduced economic growth and lack of adequate support to democratic leadership.


为了更好的经济,公立大学教育应该是免费的  教育学英文论文代写

虽然过去 30 年提供免费大学教育的国家/地区数量不断增加,但美国高等教育的平均成本一直在上升。今天,美国拥有世界上最昂贵的私立大学和仅次于澳大利亚的第二昂贵的公立大学。正如《公立高等教育应该免费:如何降低美国大学的成本和提高质量》一书的作者塞缪尔斯 (9) 所指出的那样,1980 年美国私立大学高等教育的平均年成本约为 20%家庭收入中位数(塞缪尔 9)。

到 2011 年,成本上升到 50%。在公立大学,费用从 4% 上升到 11%。 2010 年,私立大学高等教育的年平均费用为 32,307 美元。州立大学的费用为 13,589 美元。提供寄宿设施的私立大学是最贵的。 2011 年,巴黎圣母院高等教育的年费用为 51,300 美元。在哈佛和斯坦福,费用分别为 48,868 美元和 49,000 美元。在我看来,如果目前的趋势继续下去,由于成本高昂,未来美国的大学入学率可能会下降。可以说,较低的高等教育入学率将对美国产生负面影响,例如贫富差距扩大、经济增长放缓以及缺乏对民主领导的充分支持。

The US government has an opportunity to rescue the situation by investing more in higher education.

Although there are many ways through which the government can intervene, offering free college education can be the most fruitful step. The purpose of this paper is to defend the argument that college education should be made free in order to support economy of the US in the future. In particular, the paper presents a detailed critical analysis of the benefits of making public higher education free to the economy of the US. Although the paper is largely based on personal opinions, I have used the findings of empirical studies and theories proposed by credible scholars to support my arguments. To support my argument further, I have started by proposing valid solutions to some of the challenges of making higher education free identified by Wolf, the author of the book Does Education Matter?: Myths about Education and Economic Growth.  教育学英文论文代写

Wolf argues that the cost of implementing and maintaining free college education is too high, and it is not sustainable in the long-run (46). Wolf explains that “Sweden, Germany and other countries in Europe that offer free college education depend on borrowings to sustain their education systems” (46). Wolf demonstrates that free college education has threatened to destroy economies of such countries and to render them bankrupt (46). However, I believe that with policies that support free college education and good strategies, the US government can achieve the goal without depending on the borrowings.




Wolf 认为实施和维持免费大学教育的成本太高,从长远来看是不可持续的 (46)。沃尔夫解释说,“瑞典、德国和其他欧洲提供免费大学教育的国家依靠借贷来维持他们的教育系统”(46)。沃尔夫证明,免费大学教育威胁要摧毁这些国家的经济并使它们破产 (46)。但是,我相信,有了支持免费大学教育的政策和良好的策略,美国政府可以在不依赖借款的情况下实现目标。

The US has been using a lot of funds in the process of implementing its foreign policies.

For instance, the government has used a lot of money during its recent interventions in war-torn Arab states, such as Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Iraq. The US government can cut back spending on such and other discretionary activities and divert the funds to support free college education. Although some people would like the US government to continue supporting such discretionary activities for other reasons such as enhancement of security, diverting such funds towards the support of free education can be more beneficial to the economy in the short-and long-run.

The government can adopt less costly measures such as playing the role of a mediator, using democratic approaches and corroborating with other nations to solve the security issues instead of using a lot of funds in such activities. By adopting such approaches and diverting the extra funds to support free higher education with enhance the sustainability of the program, with minimal negative impact on economic growth and development.


美国在执行其外交政策的过程中一直在使用大量资金。  教育学英文论文代写



Further, Wolf argues that maintaining free college education leads to the misuse or inefficient allocation of resources (47).

Wolf observes that, in some countries in Europe such as Sweden Norway, Germany and Finland, free college education has failed to prosper due to the presence of poor management structures (bureaucracies) that pave the way for misuse of resources (47). It is true that poor management structures can lead to the misuse of resources meant to support free college education.

Misuse of government funds is likely to have a negative impact on the growth and development of the economy since the funds could be used in more fruitful activities such as building infrastructure and supporting trade with other nations. Although bureaucratic structures are necessary in the management of school funds, wastage of such funds can be reduced or eliminated through establishing oversight agencies that track the way they are used.  教育学英文论文代写

Such bodies can enhance effectiveness of the management structures by emphasizing on responsibility and accountability of the managers and leaders when using the funds. The competitiveness of the managers and leaders to handle such funds should be tested prior to the implementation of the free education program and be monitored frequently after the implementation. In short, wolf’s arguments against free college education are valid, but there are valid solutions to the problems that are likely to emerge in the implementation process.


此外,沃尔夫认为维持免费的大学教育会导致资源的滥用或低效分配 (47)。

Wolf 观察到,在欧洲的一些国家,例如瑞典、挪威、德国和芬兰,免费大学教育未能繁荣发展,因为管理结构不善(官僚机构)为滥用资源铺平了道路 (47)。确实,糟糕的管理结构会导致滥用旨在支持免费大学教育的资源。



Making college education free can be highly beneficial to the US in terms economic growth and development.

As noted by Toby (78), a scholar and the author of book called The Lowering of Higher Education in America: Why Student Loans Should Be Based on Credit Worthiness, the US has a major comparative advantage to many other nations globally in terms of technological development and production of goods and services. However, the comparative advantage has been diminishing gradually as developed and developing nations continue building up economically and technologically. For instance, China has recorded high rate of economic growth and development over the last one decade.

Investment in higher education is one of the key factors that have contributed to the rapid development of the economy of China (Toby 78). To my understanding, domestic and foreign firms rely on levels of education and skills of the workforce as major factors that influence their investment decisions. Low level of education and skills of the available workforce is likely to discourage investments that require the application adequate knowledge and skills. A country can increase the likelihood and quantity of investment in its economy through facilitating higher education. In his book, Samuels (22) notes that human capital accounted for an overwhelming proportion of the growth of the economic of US during and after postwar period.


就经济增长和发展而言,免费大学教育对美国非常有利。 教育学英文论文代写

正如学者和《美国高等教育的降低:为什么学生贷款应该基于信用价值》一书的作者托比 (78) 所指出的那样,美国在技术方面与全球许多其他国家相比具有重大的比较优势商品和服务的开发和生产。然而,随着发达国家和发展中国家在经济和技术上的不断发展,这种比较优势已经逐渐减弱。例如,中国在过去十年中取得了高速的经济增长和发展。

对高等教育的投资是促成中国经济快速发展的关键因素之一(Toby 78)。据我了解,国内外公司都依赖劳动力的教育水平和技能作为影响其投资决策的主要因素。可用劳动力的低教育水平和技能可能会阻碍需要应用程序足够知识和技能的投资。一个国家可以通过促进高等教育来增加对其经济进行投资的可能性和数量。 Samuels (22) 在他的书中指出,在战后时期和战后美国经济增长中,人力资本占据了压倒性的比例。

In my view, the ability for the US to achieve economic development and to build competitiveness in the 21st century is highly dependent on the percentage of the workforce with the higher education.

In other words, significant economic growth and development can be achieved in the US if the government facilitates an increase in the percentage of adults with higher education through providing free college education. However, in my view, the benefits can only be realized if the US government sets aside enough resources to support free education to ensure that quality is not compromised. Also, efficient management structures and oversight bodies must be established to ensure that the resources are not misused. If the quality of education is compromised, the intended end result of economic growth and development may not be achieved.  教育学英文论文代写

Secondly, free college education supports cultural development, which is essential for economic development. As Samuels explains, students of literature, classics and history provide benefits to the society through enabling it to understand itself and its relevance and place in the world (25). They foster an understanding of the past within the society. Likewise, students of arts provide benefits to the society through investment in crafts, paintings, beauty and architecture. In my view, college fees may hinder people with passion to pursue such subjects from attending colleges.


在我看来,美国在 21 世纪实现经济发展和建立竞争力的能力在很大程度上取决于受过高等教育的劳动力的百分比。


其次,免费大学教育支持文化发展,这对经济发展至关重要。正如 Samuels 解释的那样,文学、经典和历史的学生通过让社会了解自身及其相关性和在世界中的位置为社会带来好处 (25)。他们在社会中培养对过去的理解。同样,艺术专业的学生通过投资工艺、绘画、美容和建筑为社会带来好处。在我看来,大学费用可能会阻碍那些热衷于攻读此类科目的人上大学。

Lack of adequate contribution from such people is likely to reduce the amount of culture and beauty in the society.

In other words, offering free college education can help to maintain or to build a society’s unique culture. In turn, a unique positive culture adds value to a society and its products, such as artifacts and music. Such a value usually translates into economic and other benefits as result of higher returns from exportation of the cultural products and tourism. Feigenbaum (107) conducted a study in the US to determine the factors that facilitate a cultural development. The findings of the study showed that education is one of the factors that have helped to foster a unique American culture in the US.  教育学英文论文代写

Feigenbaum (107) found that the unique culture translates into economic benefits in the US. The findings of the study support my argument regarding the connection between education, cultural development and economic growth. However, in my view, free education can only facilitate cultural development if it does not have a negative influence on local culture. For instance, Islamic culture in many Arab states hinders women from taking certain subjects that are reserved for men, such as medicine, chemistry, engineering, chemistry and political sciences. Consequently, intelligent women with the ability to compete with or perform better than men in those subjects are denied the opportunity to contribute to national development (Samuels 22). In this regard, I believe that the culture that is fostered within a nation can only be beneficial if it does not hinder other forms of development.


缺乏这些人的足够贡献很可能会减少社会中的文化和美感。 教育学英文论文代写

换句话说,提供免费的大学教育有助于维持或建立一个社会的独特文化。反过来,独特的积极文化会为社会及其产品(例如手工艺品和音乐)增加价值。由于文化产品和旅游出口的更高回报,这样的价值通常会转化为经济和其他利益。 Feigenbaum (107) 在美国进行了一项研究,以确定促进文化发展的因素。研究结果表明,教育是有助于在美国培养独特的美国文化的因素之一。

Feigenbaum (107) 发现独特的文化在美国转化为经济利益。研究结果支持我关于教育、文化发展和经济增长之间联系的论点。然而,在我看来,免费教育只有在不对当地文化产生负面影响的情况下才能促进文化发展。例如,许多阿拉伯国家的伊斯兰文化阻碍女性学习某些专为男性而设的科目,例如医学、化学、工程、化学和政治科学。因此,在这些科目上有能力与男性竞争或表现优于男性的聪明女性被剥夺了为国家发展做出贡献的机会(塞缪尔 22)。在这方面,我认为在一个国家内培育的文化只有在不妨碍其他形式的发展的情况下才能有益。


Thirdly, free higher education can facilitate development of effective leadership within nations, which is also essential for economic growth and development.

A nation can function best when the intelligent or the brightest people have ample opportunity to acquire education and to rise to the top of the leadership. The presence of college fees and other barriers may hinder individuals with leadership qualities from acquiring higher education. Hargreaves carried out an empirical study in the US to investigate factors that influence how good or bad the leadership is (225). In the study, education emerged as one of the major factors that may influence leadership development in the US. The researcher concluded that facilitating free access to higher education for all individuals has facilitated leadership development in the US.  教育学英文论文代写

The researcher quoted university and college fees as a major barrier that may hinder access to leadership development education (Hargreaves 225). As the findings of the study indicate, education has contributed immensely to leadership development in the US. President Obama and other leaders may not have attained their current statuses without having access to education. They have opportunities and abilities to steer economic growth and development in the US. There are many young people who may have abilities to take over the leadership from the current leaders in the future. However, presence of college fees may hinder talented persons from accessing education needed in order to rise to the top of leadership.



当聪明或最聪明的人有足够的机会接受教育并升至领导层时,一个国家才能发挥最佳作用。大学费用和其他障碍的存在可能会阻碍具有领导才能的个人接受高等教育。 Hargreaves 在美国进行了一项实证研究,以调查影响领导力好坏的因素 (225)。在这项研究中,教育成为可能影响美国领导力发展的主要因素之一。研究人员得出结论,促进所有个人免费接受高等教育促进了美国的领导力发展。

研究人员将大学和学院费用列为可能阻碍获得领导力发展教育的主要障碍 (Hargreaves 225)。研究结果表明,教育对美国的领导力发展做出了巨大贡献。如果没有接受教育,奥巴马总统和其他领导人可能无法达到目前的地位。他们有机会和能力引导美国的经济增长和发展。未来有很多年轻人可能有能力接替现任领导人的领导权。然而,大学费用的存在可能会阻碍人才获得所需的教育,以升至领导层。

Consequently, good potential leaders may lack ample opportunities to lead in supporting the growth and development of the economy of the US.

In this regard, it is necessary to make college education free in order to give opportunities for such people to rise. However, free college education can only be fully beneficial to leadership when all people have equal access to it, irrespective of gender, tribe or race. In Saudi Arabia, for instance, women are restricted from taking subjects that would lead them to compete with men in leadership, such as political science and law (Arrows and Walter 24). In my view, making such restrictions is likely to deny talented women opportunities to show their worth. Therefore, free education in the US can only be effective in enhancing leadership development if all individuals are given equal opportunities.

In addition, free college education can enhance support for democracy by the citizens, which is one of the factors that support economic growth and development. College education is essential in the contemporary world to facilitate the development of informed citizens. In the 2004 US elections, for instance, there was an upturn in voting rate.  教育学英文论文代写

A survey that had been conducted by two scholars, Cook and Westheimer, since 1996 to investigate the influence of education on political awareness and democracy showed that, among other factors, the high turnout rate was facilitated a rise in political knowledge and awareness among US citizens (347). The survey showed that increase in the percentage of educated citizens was a major fundamental factor that influenced the political knowledge and awareness. In other words, free college education can help to improve democracy within a nation or how people vote, and political relationships.



在这方面,有必要让大学教育免费,才能给这样的人崛起的机会。然而,免费大学教育只有在所有人都能平等获得教育的情况下才能完全有利于领导力,无论性别、部落或种族如何。例如,在沙特阿拉伯,女性被限制不得参加会导致她们在领导力方面与男性竞争的科目,例如政治科学和法律(Arrows 和 Walter 24)。在我看来,做出这样的限制很可能会剥夺有才华的女性展示自己价值的机会。因此,美国的免费教育只有在为所有个人提供平等机会的情况下才能有效地促进领导力发展。

此外,免费大学教育可以增强公民对民主的支持,这是支持经济增长和发展的因素之一。在当代世界,大学教育对于促进知情公民的发展至关重要。例如,在 2004 年的美国大选中,投票率有所上升。

自 1996 年以来,由库克和韦斯海默两位学者进行的一项旨在调查教育对政治意识和民主的影响的调查表明,除其他因素外,高投票率促进了美国公民政治知识和意识的提高(347)。调查显示,受过教育的公民百分比的增加是影响政治知识和意识的主要基本因素。换句话说,免费的大学教育可以帮助改善一个国家的民主或人们的投票方式以及政治关系。

Consequently, people can select a government that suits their needs, and not the interests of the leaders.

Precisely, with political awareness and democracy, people have ability and opportunity to elect a government that has a positive, rather than negative contribution to economic growth and development. As well, political awareness and democracy facilitates adherence of citizens to law and order, which is one of the factors that influence the rate of economic growth and development. On the other hand, a reduction in the number of people accessing college education is likely to contribute to a reduction in the political awareness and democracy. In such a case, the positive effect of democracy and political awareness on economic growth and development may not be realized.  教育学英文论文代写

Furthermore, support for free college education helps to reduce the existing gap between the rich and the poor, which is one of the important aspects of economic development. College education provides numerous opportunities to students later in life. To start with, college education provides an individual with knowledge and skills that are applicable in different settings in life.  In addition, the people that students meet in college can be quite beneficial later in life. The students have opportunities to develop a network with individuals who can become future employers, business partners and customers.





In addition, college education elevates the status of an individual in the society and increases chances of getting a good job.

This is evident in the US where numerous where good jobs are mainly preserved for individuals with higher education. In the US, people with higher education are even hired with certificates that are not specific to the job they will undertake (Samuels 28). The issue is mainly caused by saturation of the US job market, leading to lower placement rates. However, the issue is also caused by the perception of education as a sign of an individual’s intellectual quality and ability to handle diversified tasks. Access to such benefits should not be the province of the rich and the privileged persons.


此外,大学教育提升了个人在社会中的地位,并增加了找到好工作的机会。  教育学英文论文代写

这在美国很明显,那里有许多好工作主要是为受过高等教育的人保留的。 在美国,受过高等教育的人甚至会获得与他们将从事的工作无关的证书(Samuels 28)。 该问题主要是由于美国就业市场饱和导致就业率下降所致。 然而,这个问题也是由将教育视为个人智力素质和处理多样化任务能力的标志引起的。 获得此类福利不应该是富人和特权人士的省份。

The presence of college fees makes it difficult for poorer groups to access college education.

Certainly, this translates into lower attendance for college education by the poorer groups. Thus, college fees serve to limit some groups of people from accessing college education, and to deny them access to high-income jobs. As a result, poor groups have lower ability to improve their economic statuses in the future. Irrespective of their present economic statuses, they can improve their future if they are offered equal opportunities to other groups in society. One of the economic benefits of reducing the education gap between the rich and the poor is the increase of available skilled workforce to support economic growth in the future. Secondly, as the income of the poor people increases, their overall contribution to the government kitty through taxes rises. Importantly, cases of extreme poverty are going to reduce or to be eliminated.  教育学英文论文代写

Another reason in support of free college education is that it can help to alleviate the burden of fees and loans placed on disadvantaged young people.

In countries where college fees are in place, many young people find it difficult to raise it. This leads people to seek for school loans to pay for the fees. In the US, for instance, seeking school loan to fund college fees has become a norm nowadays.

A report released by the Chronicle of Higher Education in 2012 indicated that out of 60 million individuals who attend college annually in the US, close to 12 million (60%) seek school loans to service college fees (Samuels 31). Sometimes, the loans can weigh heavily in the minds of the college students. They can lead to pressure that can affect the ability of the students to perform well. There are even cases where the pressure can lead students to drop out of school. In such a case, the pressure may continue even after individual graduates since he/she has to find ways to pay the debts accrued while in college.






《高等教育纪事》在 2012 年发布的一份报告表明,在每年在美国上大学的 6000 万人中,近 1200 万人(60%)寻求学校贷款来支付大学费用(塞缪尔 31)。有时,贷款会在大学生心中产生沉重的负担。它们会导致压力,从而影响学生表现良好的能力。甚至在某些情况下,压力会导致学生辍学。在这种情况下,即使在个别毕业后,压力也可能会继续存在,因为他/她必须想方设法偿还在大学期间累积的债务。

Such pressure leads individuals to take jobs to which they are not best suited for, just to get funds for repayment of the debts.

The US government has responded to the issue through establishing debt forgiveness programs to reduce the load burden on students. Although the move is good, it does give a lasting solution since not all loans are forgiven. A more comprehensive approach would be to make public higher education free. For instance, loans given to the private students are not forgiven. Although making college education free is more costly than the debt forgiveness programs, it would reduce cases of prohibition from working in the public sector due to the education loan debts. As such, all people will have a chance to work in the public sector and hence, contribute to economic growth and development.

Lastly, free college education can encourage groups in the society without cultures of college attendance to seek for college education and hence, contribute to economic growth and development. There are some groups in the society that do not have a culture of attending higher education. Although colleges and government agencies have made efforts to increase the representation of such groups in higher education, they are still underrepresented in colleges and universities as compared to other groups with comparable economic standings.


这种压力导致个人选择他们最不适合的工作,只是为了获得偿还债务的资金。  教育学英文论文代写



Banks, a scholar involved in academic sciences, conducted a study to determine the level disparities between African Americans and whites in the US.

The findings derived from the study showed that white Americans are more likely to attend college than African Americans of the same socio-economic statuses (335). The study showed that culture impetus has a major influence on whether people from different groups in the society will attend college. The results of the study imply that higher education is perceived by some groups within inner cities in the US as a preserve for the privileged white. Such perceptions are quite influential as they cause individuals in such groups not to attend college even when they have access scholarships and loans. One of the possible implications of such perceptions is reduction in the number of available educated and skilled African Americans to work and support the growth of the economy in the future. Eliminating the college fees is one of the possible ways of encouraging the underrepresented groups to participate in higher education.



该研究的结果表明,与社会经济地位相同的非裔美国人相比,美国白人更有可能上大学 (335)。研究表明,文化推动力对社会中不同群体的人是否会上大学有重大影响。研究结果表明,美国内城的某些群体将高等教育视为特权白人的保留地。这种看法非常有影响力,因为它们导致此类群体中的个人即使获得奖学金和贷款也不去上大学。这种看法可能产生的影响之一是,可供未来工作和支持经济增长的受过教育和技术熟练的非裔美国人数量减少。取消大学学费是鼓励代表性不足的群体参与高等教育的可能方式之一。


In my view, the government of the US should consider making higher education free. Making higher education in the US free has numerous potential economic benefits to the US. As noted in the analysis, the move would contribute directly to economic growth and development. Other potential benefits such as cultural development, enhancing effectiveness of leadership, supporting democracy, reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, alleviating loan burden on students and encouraging participation of underrepresented groups have a positive impact on economic growth and development.  教育学英文论文代写

Although some scholars are opposed to free college education, their arguments are not convincing enough since there are valid solutions to their claims. No one can deny that the government would face challenges during the implementation of the policy. Many people would question the ability of the economy to sustain the program. However, by making higher priority as a key priority, the government can achieve the objective without even seeking external assistance. The government can learn from countries in Europe that have succeeded in implementing the program. However, in order to achieve success, the government will have to cut its spending on discretionary activities and seek less costly alternatives. The extra funds should then be used to support higher education. In addition, the program will be successfully implemented if the government comes up with effective implementation strategies that will reduce or eliminate the possibility of misuse of the funds.


结论  教育学英文论文代写



Works Cited

Arrows, Four and Walter Block. Differing Worldviews in Higher Education. New York:

Springer, 2011. Print

Banks, Richard. “Education, income, wealth, and health among whites and African Americans.”

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896.1 (2009): 335 – 337

Cook, Sharon and Joel Westheimer. “Introduction: Democracy and Education.” Canadian

Journal of Education, 29.2 (2006): 347 – 358

Edelstein, Wolfgang. Education for Democracy: reasons and strategies. Education Democracy:

reasons and strategies. European Journal of Education, 46.1 (2011): 127 – 137

Fan, Jiamei and  Jin Zhang. “Empirical analysis on education investment and economic growth

in China.” 2011 International Conference on E-Business and E-Government (ICEE), 15 (2011): 1 – 4

Ganegodage, K. Renuka and Alicia N ambaldi (2011). “The impact of education investment

on Sri Lankan economic growth.” Economics of education review, 30.6 (2011): 491 – 502

Hargreaves, Andy. “Sustainable Leadership and Development in Education: Creating the Future, Conserving the Past.” European Journal of Education, 42.2, (2007): 223 – 233

Salamuddin, Norlena, and Mohd Taib Harun. “The effect of the intervention program in physical

education classes on students’ personal and social development.” International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 4.11 (2011): 353

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free: How to Decrease Cost and

Increase Quality at American Universities. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2013. Print

Toby, Jackson. The Lowering of Higher Education in America: Why Student Loans Should Be

Based on Credit Worthiness. New York: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print

Wolf, Alison. Does Education Matter?: Myths About Education and Economic
  Growth. London: Penguin Global, 2006


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