Volunteering At The London 2012
VOLUNTEERING AT THE LONDON 2012: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING AREAS FROM GAMES MAKERS PERSPECTIVE
志愿者服务论文代写 Sporting is a globally accepted form of competitive activity that takes place among athletes and sports personalities in various events
Background to the Study
Sporting is a globally accepted form of competitive activity that takes place among athletes and sports personalities in various events of engagement. To ensure the universality of sports, there are well organised competitions. That bring together sports personalities from different backgrounds to compete for honours in various sporting disciplines. The Olympics and Paralympics are classified as the world’s largest sporting event or competition. This is because the Olympics and Paralympics are open to virtually all countries of the world. Who are members of the World Olympic Organisation. The Olympics and Paralympics, together referred to as the Games, are organised in a four year interval. And involves almost all of the world’s most acclaimed sporting events with only few exceptions (Burnett, 2012).志愿者服务论文代写
Because the Games involve the hosting of virtually the whole world in only a single city. There have always been a lot of activities that have gone on in host cities after their bids are confirmed. When London was confirmed the host of the 2012 Olympic Games therefore. There were several preparatory activities that were going to go on to ensure that the Games were successfully hosted. And that the image of London as a host city was lifted for global glorification.
The preparations took several forms and formats, part of which included the setting up of a volunteering programme to take care of the selection. And regularisation of the activities and working areas of volunteers. The local organising committee outdoor a program dubbed Games Maker to be responsible for all issues pertaining to volunteering for the Games. After the Games in London, a number of studies have been conducted to critically evaluate the role of volunteering at the London 2012.
因为奥运会几乎只在一个城市举办了整个世界。主办城市在申办确定后，一直在开展许多活动。当伦敦被确认为 2012 年奥运会的举办地时。有几项准备活动将继续进行，以确保奥运会的成功举办。伦敦作为主办城市的形象被提升为全球美化。
准备工作采取了多种形式和形式，其中一部分包括设立一个志愿计划来处理选拔工作。并规范志愿者的活动和工作领域。当地组委会在一个名为 Games Maker 的项目之外负责与奥运会志愿服务有关的所有问题。伦敦奥运会之后，进行了多项研究，以批判性地评估志愿服务在 2012 年伦敦奥运会上的作用。
Statement of the Problem 志愿者服务论文代写
Because the task of volunteering was left with a single outfit and thus Games Maker, it is easier to subject volunteering at the London Olympics. And Paralympics to critical scrutiny because there is always a single agency to tackle in such forms of analysis. Even though there have been a number of studies. And research to assess the performance of Games Maker after the Games in London 2012, there remains key gaps in existing studies. This is because most of the existing studies have looked at volunteering. As a holistic component of the Games without critically paying attention to differences between the working areas of volunteers from Games Maker perspective (Torres, 2006).志愿者服务论文代写
Due to this, the existing forms of evaluation have not been empirical enough for specified decision making on areas of volunteering that needs to be maintained, those that need to be modified. And those that need to be changed entirely. Another key gap that has been found in existing literature on volunteering at the London 2012 has to do with the inability of the researches to clarify what individual, social and community impacts of volunteering have been. Rather, most of these works of research generalise the impact of volunteering and focus it only on the games. And how the working areas of volunteers affected the Games in London (Burnett, 2012). Finally, there is a problem with most existing works of research whereby the London 2012 Olympics have been isolated from the totality of the Olympic dream and vision that constituted its establishment.
由于志愿服务的任务只剩下一套服装，因此只有 Games Maker，因此在伦敦奥运会上更容易进行志愿服务。残奥会受到严格审查，因为在这种形式的分析中，总会有一个机构来应对。尽管已经有很多研究。在评估 2012 年伦敦奥运会后 Games Maker 的表现的研究中，现有研究仍然存在重大差距。这是因为大多数现有研究都着眼于志愿服务。作为奥运会的一个整体组成部分，而没有严格关注从游戏制作者的角度来看志愿者工作领域之间的差异（托雷斯，2006 年）。
因此，现有的评估形式对于需要维护和需要修改的志愿服务领域的具体决策而言不够经验。以及那些需要完全改变的。在伦敦 2012 年志愿服务的现有文献中发现的另一个关键差距与研究无法阐明志愿服务对个人、社会和社区的影响有关。相反，这些研究工作中的大多数都概括了志愿服务的影响，并将其仅集中在游戏上。以及志愿者的工作区域如何影响伦敦奥运会（Burnett，2012 年）。最后，大多数现有的研究工作都存在一个问题，即 2012 年伦敦奥运会与构成其建立的奥林匹克梦想和愿景的整体隔离开来。
Purpose of the Study
In line with the problems identified above, the current research is being set out to achieve the purpose of bridging the gaps. That currently exists in literature on volunteering at London 2012. Specifically, the research work shall critically identify various working areas from Games Maker perspective so that it will be possible to assign critical evaluative assessment to Games Maker. And for that matter volunteering from a task specified perspective. This way, it will be possible to critique volunteering not as a holistic concept but the working areas of volunteering as specific components of the Games.志愿者服务论文代写
What is more, this research is being set out as an academic approach to critically synthesise the various components of volunteering naming individual, social, and community components. To a very large extent therefore, the research shall try to find the impact of volunteering not on the Games per se but on individual volunteers. The socio-cultural environment of the host city, and the community impact that volunteers brought. Finally, the study has a purpose of investigating the relationship between the London 2012. And the overall focus and aim of the Olympics from a World Olympic Organisation point of view. Whiles doing this, the role of volunteers in realising this relationship shall be a central focus for the study.
针对以上发现的问题，目前的研究正在着手实现弥合差距的目的。目前存在于伦敦 2012 志愿服务的文献中。具体而言，研究工作应从 Games Maker 的角度批判性地确定各个工作领域，以便对 Games Maker 进行批判性评估。就此而言，从任务指定的角度志愿服务。这样，就可以不将志愿服务作为一个整体概念来批判，而是将志愿工作的工作领域作为奥运会的具体组成部分进行批判。 志愿者服务论文代写
更重要的是，这项研究正在作为一种学术方法来批判性地综合志愿服务的各个组成部分，命名个人、社会和社区组成部分。因此，在很大程度上，研究应试图找出志愿服务对奥运会本身的影响，而不是对个人志愿者的影响。主办城市的社会文化环境，以及志愿者带来的社区影响。最后，该研究的目的是调查伦敦 2012 与从世界奥林匹克组织的角度来看奥运会的总体重点和目标之间的关系。在这样做的同时，志愿者在实现这种关系中的作用应成为研究的中心焦点。
Aim and Objectives
Based on the purpose of the study, the researcher seeks to use this research work to achieve the aim of evaluating the impact of the London 2012 on volunteers from Games Maker perspective. This is however a very broad aim that cannot be achieved by performing just a single activity or action. To this end, a series of specific objectives that need to be achieved to realise the achievement of the overall aim will be set. These specific objectives are listed as follows: 志愿者服务论文代写
- To evaluate the influential of the Games Maker Programme in ensuring the success of the London 2012.
- To assess the social impacted of Games Maker Programme on individual volunteers.
- To analyse the different ways in which Games Maker Volunteering impacted on host city and communities.
- To outline the level of Olympic learning that took place as a result of the London 2012.
基于研究的目的，研究人员试图利用这项研究工作来实现从 Games Maker 的角度评估伦敦 2012 对志愿者的影响的目的。 然而，这是一个非常广泛的目标，不能通过执行单一的活动或行动来实现。 为此，将制定一系列为实现总体目标而需要实现的具体目标。 这些具体目标如下：
评估 Games Maker Program 对确保 2012 年伦敦奥运会成功的影响。
分析 Games Maker 志愿服务对主办城市和社区产生影响的不同方式。
概述 2012 年伦敦奥运会带来的奥林匹克学习水平。
Significance of the Study
Once the aim and objectives of the study that have been outlined above are achieved, there are some key significances and importance. That is would bring to academic and professional practice. In the first place, the study shall serve as an evaluation tool for Games Maker. And all other agencies that were concerned with volunteering at the Games. Because the individual working areas of volunteering shall be studied instead of holistic volunteering. The research paper shall serve as a very useful decision making tool on areas of volunteering that may need restructuring and improvement in all future events.志愿者服务论文代写
As such improvements are made London and the United Kingdom by extension will become a better global model. When it comes to the hosting globalised occasions and events such the Olympics. In the second place, an exposure of the individual and social, as well as community benefits that were associated with volunteerism during the London 2012 will ensure. That there is motivation among several other people who did not take part in the volunteering programme to adopt a sense of volunteerism for their nation. Which in itself is an act of patriotism (Bull and Jones, 2006). Finally, it is expected that the significance of the study shall be expanded belong London 2012 into the larger Olympic conceptualisation in appreciating. How the games were instrumental in living and realising the larger Olympic goal.志愿者服务论文代写
- How influential was Games Maker Programme in ensuring the success of the London 2012?
- What were the social impacts of Games Maker Programme on individual volunteers?
- In what ways did Games Maker Volunteering impact on host city and communities?
- What Olympic learning phenomena did London 2012 exhibit?
一旦实现了上述研究的目的和目标，就具有一些关键的意义和重要性。这将带来学术和专业实践。首先，该研究应作为 Games Maker 的评估工具。以及所有其他关注奥运会志愿服务的机构。因为应该研究志愿服务的个别工作领域，而不是整体志愿服务。研究论文将作为一个非常有用的决策工具，用于在未来的所有活动中可能需要重组和改进的志愿服务领域。
随着这些改进的进行，伦敦和英国将成为一个更好的全球模式。谈到举办奥运会等全球化的场合和赛事。其次，将确保在 2012 年伦敦奥运会期间与志愿服务相关的个人和社会以及社区利益的曝光。其他几个没有参加志愿服务计划的人有动机为他们的国家采取志愿服务意识。这本身就是一种爱国主义行为（Bull 和 Jones，2006 年）。最后，预计这项研究的意义将扩大到 2012 年伦敦奥运会的更大范围的奥运概念的欣赏中。奥运会如何在生活和实现更大的奥林匹克目标方面发挥作用。
Games Maker Program 对确保 2012 年伦敦奥运会的成功有多大影响？
Games Maker Program 对志愿者个人的社会影响是什么？
Games Maker Volunteering 对主办城市和社区有何影响？
The literature review section of the study is dedicated to the critical reviewing of existing works of literature that are related and relevant to the research topic. And seek to solve the research problem identified. The literature review shall also be instrumental in acting as a secondary data collection process that will be used in answering the research questions that have been posed in the opening chapter of the study. In line with this, an approach that seeks to draw the research questions into thematic topics. Or titles has been adopted for the literature review. By the close of the review therefore, it is expected that the qualitative aspects of the research questions will be thoroughly answered.
该研究的文献综述部分致力于对与研究主题相关的现有文献作品进行批判性评论。 并寻求解决所确定的研究问题。 文献综述还应有助于作为辅助数据收集过程，用于回答研究开头一章中提出的研究问题。 与此一致的是，一种旨在将研究问题纳入主题的方法。 或者文献综述采用了标题。 因此，在审查结束时，预计研究问题的定性方面将得到彻底回答。
2.1 Games Maker
2.11 Overview of the Games Maker Programme
The organization of global events such as the Olympics is a very demanding exercise that cannot be achieved if approached from an individualized perspective. It is for this reason that Culpan (2012) notes the need for the local organizing committee to have had an official volunteering program that would take care of all issues pertaining to volunteering. To this end, Games Maker was instituted as an official programme to take care of all aspects of the games. That had to do with volunteering. As part of the scheme of work for Games Maker for the London Olympics 2012, the programme directorate was tasked with the role of ensuring that there was the promotion of volunteers’ activities.志愿者服务论文代写
This means that Games Maker was responsible for coordinating all volunteer activities and ensuring that all support that volunteers needed by way of London 2012 were duly provided to them (Culpan, 2011). Secondly, the programme was tasked with the duty of ensuring that there was the promotion of volunteer activities. This means that not only was the program to give support to volunteers but also to ensure that all issues. That had to do with publicity and promotion in raising the right number and people to be volunteers was taken care of (Halstead and Taylor, 2000).
2.1 游戏制作者 志愿者服务论文代写
组织像奥运会这样的全球性赛事是一项非常艰巨的工作，如果从个性化的角度来看是无法实现的。正是出于这个原因，Culpan (2012) 指出当地组委会需要有一个官方的志愿服务计划，以处理与志愿服务有关的所有问题。为此，Games Maker 被设立为官方程序，负责处理游戏的各个方面。这与志愿服务有关。作为 2012 年伦敦奥运会 Games Maker 工作计划的一部分，项目理事会的任务是确保促进志愿者活动。
这意味着 Games Maker 负责协调所有志愿者活动，并确保志愿者在 2012 年伦敦奥运会期间所需的所有支持都得到了适当的支持（Culpan，2011）。其次，该计划的任务是确保促进志愿者活动。这意味着该计划不仅要为志愿者提供支持，还要确保所有问题。这与提高合适人数的宣传和推广有关，并照顾到了成为志愿者的人（Halstead 和 Taylor，2000）。
2.12 The Need for a Volunteering Programme for the Games
One would ask if it was necessary at all to have a whole agency or programme that was dedicated to volunteering for the Olympics at all. In this, Rubin and Rubin (2005) has realised answers to why a volunteering programme could not be forfeited. First it has been noted that volunteering was an inevitable part of the Olympic Games in London considering the volume of work that was needed to be done by the organisers. Meanwhile, due to several reasons including security reasons, it was going to be appropriate and right in ensuring that not just anybody at all was recruited to be a volunteer (Torres, 2006).志愿者服务论文代写
But even before the selection of volunteers, it was necessary to ensuring that there was a pragmatic and systematic mechanism. That would be used to identify the exact number of volunteers, that would be needed for London 2012 so that there would neither be excessively more or excessively less (Hammersley and Atknison, 1995). With all these roles in mind, the only means of ensuring that there was accuracy and efficiency with issues of volunteering was to ensure. That an independent and well resourced volunteering programme was institution. With this, Hargreaves (2012) supports the argument that having a volunteering programme such as Games Maker was a step in the right direction.
有人会问，是否有必要建立一个专门为奥运会提供志愿服务的机构或项目。在这方面，Rubin 和 Rubin (2005) 已经意识到为什么不能放弃志愿服务计划的答案。首先，考虑到组织者需要完成的工作量，志愿服务是伦敦奥运会不可避免的一部分。同时，由于包括安全原因在内的多种原因，确保不只是招募任何人成为志愿者是适当和正确的（Torres，2006）。
但即使在选择志愿者之前，也必须确保有一个务实和系统的机制。这将用于确定 2012 年伦敦奥运会所需的志愿者的确切人数，以便不会过多或过少（Hammersley 和 Atknison，1995 年）。考虑到所有这些角色，确保志愿服务问题的准确性和效率的唯一方法是确保。一个独立且资源丰富的志愿服务计划是制度性的。有了这个，Hargreaves (2012) 支持这样的论点，即拥有诸如 Games Maker 之类的志愿计划是朝着正确方向迈出的一步。
2.13 Working areas of the Games Maker Programme
When Games Maker was instituted as the official volunteering programme for London 2012, it opened up applications for people to apply to volunteers. As an expression of the spirit of patriotism on the side of the people of Britain, there were as many as 240,000 applications coming through (Rychtecký, 2012). Out of the number, only 70,000 could be given a place, considering the quantum of work that was available for people to take up as volunteers. Of the 70,000 people, 50,000 were recruited and assigned to the Olympics whiles the remaining 20,000 worked with the Paralympics.志愿者服务论文代写
Of the 70,000 combined volunteers, official records from the local organising committee has it that a total of 8,000,000 working hours were offered from these volunteers in the various working areas that they took roles in. In another study, it has been estimated that the work that each of the volunteers offered, if quantified for their labour. Would have worth £500 if each volunteer was paid the minimum wage (Burnett, 2006). The various roles that were taken to bring the value of work to the quoted figure includes ticket checking, operation of scoreboards, starting music, giving escort to athletes, assisting in drug test, acting as nurses, giving bodyguard services, guiding visiting, acting as drivers, fencing of judges, moderating press conferences, greeting athletes, delivering printed results, among others (Culpan, 2012). In all, 800 different roles were played by the volunteers.
当 Games Maker 成为 2012 年伦敦奥运会的官方志愿服务项目时，它向人们开放了志愿者申请。作为英国人民爱国主义精神的体现，有多达 240,000 份申请通过 (Rychtecký, 2012)。考虑到人们可以担任志愿者的工作量，其中只有 70,000 人可以得到一个位置。在7万人中，有5万人被招募并分配到奥运会，而其余的2万人则在残奥会工作。
在这 70,000 名志愿者中，当地组委会的官方记录显示，这些志愿者在他们参与的各个工作领域提供了总共 8,000,000 小时的工作。在另一项研究中，估计如果对他们的劳动进行量化的话，每位志愿者都会提供。如果每个志愿者都获得最低工资，则价值 500 英镑（Burnett，2006 年）。被赋予工作价值的各种角色包括检票、记分牌操作、播放音乐、护送运动员、协助药物测试、充当护士、提供保镖服务、指导访问、充当司机、裁判击剑、主持新闻发布会、问候运动员、提供打印结果等（Culpan，2012 年）。志愿者们总共扮演了 800 个不同的角色。
2.14 The Grant Scheme
Even though volunteers enrolled as Games Makers were generally not paid for their services, it was still important that certain key expenses that they bore be taken care of by the organising committee. Such support was especially necessary for people who were coming from outside the Olympic cities, or generally from outside Leicestershire. To make the regulation of a financial support for these volunteers. A fund was created that was regulated as the Grant Scheme (Sands, 2012).志愿者服务论文代写
greater part of the funding that the Grant Scheme offered to volunteers were focused at the areas of accommodation. And transportation as the euphoria of the games lead to an increase in demand for accommodation, and the subsequent increases in prices of accommodation. It would be noted that in different communities, different numbers of volunteers were assisted through the Grant Scheme. For example, Chen (2012) notes that a total of 62 Leicestershire Games Makers were given financial support. That was made up of £250 upkeep towards travel and accommodation expenses (Halstead and Taylor, 2010). The Grant Scheme therefore came as a means of facilitating the work of Games Maker as a volunteering programme.
赠款计划提供给志愿者的大部分资金都集中在住宿方面。而交通作为运动会的欣喜若狂，导致了住宿需求的增加，以及随之而来的住宿价格的上涨。值得注意的是，在不同的社区，不同数量的志愿者通过赠款计划得到了帮助。例如，Chen (2012) 指出，共有 62 家莱斯特郡游戏制造商获得了资金支持。其中包括 250 英镑的差旅和住宿费用（Halstead 和 Taylor，2010）。因此，赠款计划旨在促进 Games Maker 作为志愿计划的工作。
2.15 Evaluation of Games Maker Programme
Various reviewers, researchers and academicians have tried to evaluate the role that Games Maker programme played in the whole of the London 2012. Reviewing through most of their works, there can be a generalised consensus that from Games Makers perspective, the differences in working areas. That were undertaken were delivered in very efficient and professional manner. Rychtecký (2012) has particularly emphasised that the Games Maker programme is worth commendation for its precision and scope of task.志愿者服务论文代写
This means that the programme was right in identifying almost every scheme of work. That would need a volunteer assistance and the right number of volunteers that would be needed to be assigned to each scheme of work. This way, barely can anyone point to an aspect of the Games that was ill-delivered because of the absence of volunteers to assist. In a very similar fashion, Hargreaves (2012) have said that much of the commendation worth Games Maker programme must go to in the direction of how effective the duties delivered by volunteers was. This is because through an effective recruitment process. The very best of people who would be sampled to deliver expert roles in various working areas were selected to ensure. That questions of ineffectiveness were out of the equation.
各种评论家、研究人员和院士都试图评估 Games Maker 计划在整个 2012 年伦敦奥运会中所扮演的角色。通过他们的大部分作品回顾，可以普遍达成共识，即从 Games Makers 的角度来看，工作领域的差异。所进行的工作以非常高效和专业的方式进行。 Rychtecký (2012) 特别强调 Games Maker 计划因其精确性和任务范围而值得称赞。
这意味着该计划在确定几乎所有工作计划方面都是正确的。这将需要志愿者协助，以及需要为每个工作计划分配适当数量的志愿者。通过这种方式，几乎没有人指出由于缺乏志愿者提供帮助而未能实现的奥运会方面。哈格里夫斯 (Hargreaves) (2012) 以一种非常相似的方式表示，值得 Games Maker 计划的大部分赞扬都必须朝着志愿者履行职责的有效性的方向发展。这是因为通过有效的招聘流程。挑选出最优秀的人来确保在各个工作领域担任专家角色。效率低下的问题不在考虑范围内。
2.2 Social impact of Games Maker Programme on Individual Volunteers
Having served in various working areas as Games Makers, there are very key social merits and impacts that volunteers received as part of their participation in the London 2012 that have transformed their lives and experiences. Three of these key social impacts are reviewed from the perspective of different writers in this section of the literature review.
2.2 游戏创客计划对个人志愿者的社会影响 志愿者服务论文代写
作为游戏制作者在各个工作领域服务过，志愿者在参加 2012 年伦敦奥运会时获得了非常重要的社会价值和影响，这些价值和影响改变了他们的生活和体验。 在文献综述的这一部分，从不同作者的角度回顾了其中三个关键的社会影响。
2.21 Improvement in the self confidence and self esteem of volunteers
There Olympics and Paralympics are clearly places where the world’s best in sporting activities gather to compete for global supremacy on a quadrennial basis. To this end, any person who gets an opportunity to be associated with the event. And for that matter its participants in anyway can be considered as one who has had an opportunity to transform his individual social life (Babbie, 2007). Very clear evidence in this argument is the number of new blogs. And internet pages that sprang up during the course of the Games and after the Games from volunteers.志愿者服务论文代写
In these blogs and internet sites, the volunteers were sharing their joy in having seen or come into personal contact with some of the world’s most renowned athletes and personalities. In situations like this, psychologists have explained that volunteers stand the chance of having their self confidence. And general self esteem improving as a result of their experiences (Brunton et al, 2003). Meanwhile, self confidence and high self esteem are qualities. That are very much needed in the day to day social engagements of people, including their quest to land on better jobs as the level of a person’s confidence and self esteem are very important in raising employee confidence and satisfaction at work (Bull and Jones, 2006).
在这些博客和互联网网站上，志愿者们分享了他们看到或接触到一些世界上最著名的运动员和名人的喜悦。在这种情况下，心理学家解释说，志愿者有机会获得自信。并且由于他们的经历而提高了一般自尊（Brunton 等，2003）。同时，自信和高自尊是品质。这是人们日常社交活动中非常需要的，包括他们寻求更好的工作，因为一个人的信心和自尊水平对于提高员工对工作的信心和满意度非常重要（Bull 和 Jones，2006 年） ）。
2.22 Establishment of social connections
Another dimension of social benefit that several of the volunteers through their internet sites. Blogs and personal interactions with the media indicated was that they were able to have a very wide social connection opening as a result of being part of Games Maker programme (Culpan, 1997). By social connections, reference is being made to the situation whereby the number of people and influences a person has increased due to the exposure to the whole world through the Games. A typical example has been cited elsewhere of a volunteer who had a lifelong dream of being part of the British Swimming Team realised when in her very first words to the coach of the team at the games, she expressed her abilities and eagerness (Culpan, 2001).志愿者服务论文代写
Other people have been reported to have made friends around the world, through which new business opportunities have been opened (Brunton et al, 2003). There are also cases of those who through the Games found life partners. And other forms of friends within their social basket. Meanwhile, in today’s globalised world where there are virtually no boundaries and borders, the length of a person’s social connections would go a very long way to determine the nature of successes. That will be experienced in areas of life including occupation, education, relationships, profession, business, recreation, and talent development (Scheurich, 2005)
一些志愿者通过他们的网站获得了社会福利的另一个方面。博客和与媒体的个人互动表明，作为 Games Maker 计划的一部分，他们能够建立非常广泛的社交联系（Culpan，1997）。通过社会关系，指的是由于通过奥运会接触到全世界而增加的人数和影响力的情况。在别处引用了一个典型的例子，一名志愿成为英国游泳队的一员，当她在比赛中对球队教练说的第一句话就表达了她的能力和渴望（Culpan，2001 ）。
2.23 Acquisition of social perceptive skills – communication, courtesy interpersonal relations
The differences in working areas of Games Makers required several skills and experiences for one to be successful as a volunteer. Because sports, under which the Olympics and Paralympics fall are generally classified as social events, most of the skills, knowledge and experience needed becoming successful volunteers were social perceptive skills. For most applicants who were applying to be volunteers, the very first task expected of them was for them to equip. And better improve some of these social perceptive skills such as communication, courtesy and interpersonal relations (Hamilton and Fenzel, 1988).志愿者服务论文代写
By so doing however, they were developing these skills to later become part of their holistic social live as people. Into the Games also, the social perceptive skills of volunteers were better enhanced. This is because volunteers were made to understand and appreciate the fact that they were representing the collective image of the United Kingdom, for which reason they had to show to the entire world through their interaction with all people they came across, the type of hospitality that the English people have (Culpan, 1997).
游戏制作者工作领域的差异需要多种技能和经验才能成为一名成功的志愿者。由于奥运会和残奥会所属的体育运动通常被归类为社会活动，因此成为成功志愿者所需的大部分技能、知识和经验都是社会感知能力。对于大多数申请成为志愿者的申请人来说，他们期望的第一项任务就是装备。并更好地提高其中一些社会感知技能，例如沟通、礼貌和人际关系（Hamilton 和 Fenzel，1988）。
然而，通过这样做，他们正在发展这些技能，后来成为他们整体社会生活的一部分。参加运动会，志愿者的社会感知能力得到了更好的提升。这是因为志愿者被要求理解并欣赏他们代表英国的集体形象这一事实，因此他们必须通过与遇到的所有人的互动向全世界展示这种热情好客英国人有 (Culpan, 1997)。
2.3Impact of Games Maker Volunteering on Communities
Indeed, the benefits that the various working areas with Games Maker volunteering brought about is not limited to individuals alone but to host communities. And communities from which most of these volunteers come from. From this perspective, a number of studies have been conducted on the impact that the Games bought on communities as a result of the Games Maker volunteering works that were executed.
2.3 游戏创客志愿服务对社区的影响 志愿者服务论文代写
事实上，Games Maker 志愿服务的各个工作领域带来的好处不仅限于个人，还包括主办社区。 以及大多数志愿者来自的社区。 从这个角度来看，已经开展了许多关于奥运会因执行 Games Maker 志愿工作而对社区产生的影响的研究。
2.31 Extension of volunteering spirit into communities
One of the key aspects of benefits identified under the volunteering work undertaken under the auspices of Games Maker is in the area of extended volunteering spirits into communities from which volunteers had come from. Truño, 1995) notes that volunteerism is an important part for the development of any country or community. To this end, the presence of well spirited volunteers to undertake various roles within their communities is a thing that every community requires. Meanwhile, Taylor (2004) puts in an argument that volunteerism needs to be bred. And that it cannot be found in people as an automated talent or gift.志愿者服务论文代写
To this end, there is always the need to find an avenue through which the spirit of volunteering can be developed in people. It is in line with this that a research conducted by Vallerand (2013) showed. That for most of the volunteers who were part of Games Maker, London 2012 became the right breeding grounds for them to develop their volunteering spirits. Indeed, as a transition point for the experiences acquired, it can be assured that most of these people shall give back to their communities. When the need for volunteering duties arise in their communities (Truño, 1995). This way, community development and integration can be said to be enhanced and better developed.
在 Games Maker 赞助下开展的志愿工作所确定的主要好处之一是将志愿精神扩展到志愿者所来自的社区。 Truño, 1995) 指出，志愿服务是任何国家或社区发展的重要组成部分。为此，每个社区都需要精神饱满的志愿者在其社区内承担各种角色。与此同时，Taylor (2004) 提出了需要培养志愿服务的论点。并且它不能作为一种自动化的才能或天赋在人们身上找到。
为此，始终需要找到一种途径，通过这种途径可以在人们中发展志愿精神。 Vallerand (2013) 进行的一项研究表明，这与此相符。对于大部分 Games Maker 的志愿者来说，2012 年伦敦奥运会成为他们培养志愿精神的最佳温床。事实上，作为获得经验的过渡点，可以保证这些人中的大多数人都会回馈他们的社区。当他们的社区需要志愿服务时（Truño，1995）。这样，社区的发展和融合可以说是得到了加强和更好的发展。
2.32 Raised the socio-cultural image of communities involved
With London as the host city of the Games in 2012, there were several other communities and towns nearby that were influenced by the hosting of the Game. Studies that have been conducted on the pre-hosting, hosting and post-hosting influences on the communities involved have actually revealed that most of these communities. And London to be specific was shot into a global limelight and popularity due to the Games (Taylor, 2004). This is because of the global publicity that is given to the Game. Being showed in all continents of the world and as having as many as 204 participating countries (Arthur and Nazroo, 2013).志愿者服务论文代写
As volunteers interacted with visitors, updated their social media status, and expressed themselves in the media. They were selling to the whole world.The rich socio-cultural heritage of London and United Kingdom as a whole (Taylor, 2004). Meanwhile, the socio-cultural image of any city or community has a very long term effect on the tourism potentials of that city or community. Which also has a direct influence on the economic prosperity of the city or community involved (Arthur and Nazroo, 2013). With this point made, it can be said that the London 2012 was a very useful exercise through which the various roles played by volunteers in interacting with the world brought a global socio-cultural focus and attention on all communities involved.
伦敦作为 2012 年奥运会的主办城市，附近还有其他几个社区和城镇也受到了奥运会举办地的影响。对所涉及社区的托管前、托管和托管后影响进行的研究实际上表明，这些社区中的大多数都是如此。伦敦由于奥运会而成为全球瞩目的焦点和知名度（Taylor，2004）。这是因为对游戏进行了全球宣传。在世界各大洲展出，参与国家多达 204 个（Arthur 和 Nazroo，2013 年）。
作为志愿者与访客互动，更新他们的社交媒体状态，并在媒体上表达自己。他们向全世界销售。伦敦和英国作为一个整体的丰富的社会文化遗产（泰勒，2004 年）。同时，任何城市或社区的社会文化形象对该城市或社区的旅游潜力都有非常长期的影响。这也对相关城市或社区的经济繁荣有直接影响（Arthur 和 Nazroo，2013 年）。有了这一点，可以说 2012 年伦敦奥运会是一次非常有用的活动，志愿者在与世界互动时所扮演的各种角色为所有相关社区带来了全球社会文化的关注和关注。
2.4 Olympic Learning
As part of volunteering at the London Olympics and Paralympics, an important aspect of participation from Games Maker perspective has to do with what has been framed in Olympic parlance as Olympic learning (Girginov and Hills, 2008. Generally, Olympic learning has been said to affect three major aspects of a person’s life. Of which the effect on the lives of volunteers is scrutinised in this section of the literature review.
2.4 奥林匹克学习 志愿者服务论文代写
作为伦敦奥运会和残奥会志愿服务的一部分，从 Games Maker 的角度来看，参与的一个重要方面与奥林匹克术语中的奥林匹克学习有关（Girginov 和 Hills，2008 年。一般来说，奥林匹克学习被认为会影响 一个人生活的三个主要方面。其中对志愿者生活的影响在文献综述的这一部分进行了详细审查。
2.41 Sporting efforts
Sporting efforts remains one of the most important Olympic learning aspects that have been incorporated into the organisation of the Games. By sporting efforts, reference is made to the use of sports in the edification of the human attitude and talent (Atherley, 2006). It would be noted that most sporting disciplines are inherent to several people as either a talent or a skill. It is however through games and sporting activities that these talents and skills become manifest. But to a lot more people, evidence of which has been showed to include some volunteers for the London 2012, the need to cultivate their own sporting efforts never gets manifested until they have had a personalised encounter with other achievers, whose life and activities serve as inspiration to them (Girginov, 2010).志愿者服务论文代写
In one of the earliest studies that were conducted after the Olympics and Paralympics in London, it was actually found that greater number of volunteers were people. Who were practicing various forms of sports as amateurs (Girginov and Hills, 2008). The will and need to be volunteers was therefore influenced by the quest to come up close with professional sports personalities whose life as sportsmen and women would serve. As mentorship and inspiration for developing their sporting efforts. For most of such people, data collected from them showed that they indeed achieved this goal while taking part in various working areas as volunteers (Girginov, 2010).
体育运动仍然是已纳入奥运会组织的最重要的奥林匹克学习方面之一。通过体育努力，提到了体育在培养人类态度和才能方面的作用（Atherley，2006）。需要注意的是，大多数体育学科都是几个人固有的天赋或技能。然而，正是通过游戏和体育活动，这些才能和技能得以体现。但是对于更多的人来说，其中包括一些伦敦 2012 志愿者的证据，在他们与其他成功者进行个性化相遇之前，培养自己的体育努力的需要永远不会表现出来，他们的生活和活动作为对他们的启发（Girginov, 2010）。
在伦敦奥运会和残奥会之后进行的最早的一项研究中，实际上发现更多的志愿者是人。作为业余爱好者从事各种形式的运动（Girginov 和 Hills，2008 年）。因此，成为志愿者的意愿和需要受到了与职业体育名人的近距离接触的影响，他们的运动员和女性的生活将服务于他们。作为发展他们体育事业的指导和灵感。对于大多数这样的人，从他们那里收集的数据表明，他们在作为志愿者参与各种工作领域时确实实现了这一目标（Girginov，2010）。
2.42 Social conduct
Another important component of the Olympic learning is the kind of social conduct that people who are engaged in the Games acquire. By this, there can be to major participants, who are primary participants and secondary participants. Primary participants refer to sportsmen and women, or athletes in general who partake in the different sporting activities showcased at the games (Vallerand, 2013). Secondary participants on the other hand refer to other stakeholders who get engaged in the Games in one way or the other, typical example of whom are volunteers.志愿者服务论文代写
In his studies, Hammersley (2008) noted that whether a person is a primary participant or secondary participant in the games, there are key social conducts that are acquired. That are easily transferable into the total way of life of the person. It is at this point that social conduct has been explained as a codified way of conducting oneself that is generally accepted by society (Arnold, 1979). By and large, it will be noted that taking part in the Games comes with a great sense of abiding to some social principles such as friendliness, interpersonal relations and open communication. Each of these principles, as volunteers under Games Maker share among their colleagues and other people who needed their services. Contributed to the collective creation of a social conduct status for them (Baade and Matheson, 2002).
Hammersley (2008) 在他的研究中指出，无论一个人是游戏的主要参与者还是次要参与者，都有一些关键的社会行为是后天习得的。这很容易转移到人的整个生活方式中。正是在这一点上，社会行为被解释为一种被社会普遍接受的规范化的行为方式（Arnold，1979）。总的来说，人们会注意到参加奥运会是一种遵守一些社会原则的强烈意识，例如友好、人际关系和开放的沟通。作为 Games Maker 下的志愿者，这些原则中的每一个都与他们的同事和其他需要他们服务的人分享。有助于为他们集体创造社会行为状态（Baade 和 Matheson，2002 年）。
2.43 Moral behaviour
Sports and Olympics for that matter has been said to be a very useful venture for the promotion of moral behaviour among all people who are engaged in it. The very direct premise through which this moral behaviour is created is through the presence. And use of rules in various sporting disciplines (Arthur and Nazroo, 2003). No matter how physical and combative a sporting discipline may be, there are rules and guidelines that regulate the way athletics. And other secondary participants should conduct themselves with the sport. As the focus of the research is on volunteering, the perspective of secondary participants will be taken into consideration.志愿者服务论文代写
In this, Baade and Matheson (2002) has noted that there are always rules make for spectator, fans and other supporters of the game. As these people abide by these rules, most of which teach them. How to behaviour themselves well in the expression of their pain and joy. They become equipped to nurture their moral behaviour as a whole (Arnold, 1979). For volunteers, a very useful moral lesson that they professed to have learnt. Which can easily be transformed into becoming a permanent moral behaviour for them is the need to welcome all people. And to show solidarity towards all people, regardless of their background. This is because even though all the volunteers were citizens of the United Kingdom. They were expected to show fairness and avoid all forms of biases against people from other countries (Babbie, 2007).
就此而言，体育和奥运会被认为是促进所有参与其中的人的道德行为的非常有益的尝试。创造这种道德行为的非常直接的前提是通过在场。以及在各种体育学科中使用规则（Arthur 和 Nazroo，2003 年）。无论体育学科的身体素质和战斗力如何，都有规范体育运动方式的规则和指导方针。其他次要参与者应该参与这项运动。由于研究的重点是志愿服务，因此将考虑次要参与者的观点。
在这方面，Baade 和 Matheson (2002) 指出，对于比赛的观众、球迷和其他支持者，总有一些规则。由于这些人遵守这些规则，其中大部分是教给他们的。如何在表达自己的痛苦和快乐时表现得很好。他们有能力培养整体的道德行为（Arnold，1979）。对于志愿者来说，这是他们自称学到的非常有用的道德教训。对他们来说很容易转化为永久的道德行为的是欢迎所有人的需要。并向所有人表示声援，无论他们的背景如何。这是因为即使所有志愿者都是英国公民。他们被期望表现出公平并避免对来自其他国家的人的各种形式的偏见（Babbie，2007）。
3.1 Chapter Introduction
This chapter named methodology is dedicated to outlining the various procedures and methods used by the researcher in collecting data for the study. It would be noted that data collection is an important component of this study. Especially in the researcher’s attempt to answering the research questions that have been posed and achieving the research objectives. That were set in the first chapter of the study. As part of the methodology, the researcher shall make use of both primary and secondary data collection procedures, meaning that the approach to this study shall be a mixed method.志愿者服务论文代写
The mixed research method would certainly mean. That much work is going to go into the data collection process as there will be both primary data collection. Which will be made up of collecting data from a group of respondents identified within the research setting, and secondary data. Which will involve collection of data from existing works of literature (Andranovitch, Burbank and Heyning, 2001). The eventual benefit of the mixed research method will be worth the effort put into it because it will help in guaranteeing the validity and reliability of the study (Attride-Stirling, 2001).
混合研究方法当然意味着。大量的工作将进入数据收集过程，因为将有两个主要数据收集。这将由从研究环境中确定的一组受访者收集数据和二手数据组成。这将涉及从现有文学作品中收集数据（Andranovitch、Burbank 和 Heyning，2001 年）。混合研究方法的最终好处将是值得付出努力的，因为它将有助于保证研究的有效性和可靠性（Attride-Stirling，2001）。
3.2 The Context of Research 志愿者服务论文代写
3.2.1 The Ontology
The identification of the ontology and epistemology of any work of research is very important in determining the approach. That the researcher will use in collecting data and the nature of data that must be collected. This is because ontology generally makes reference to the claims and assumptions that a researcher makes towards a research problem or philosophy (Atherley, 2006). In line with the assumptions, the researcher is able to contract various themes for secondary data collection. This is because by the use of ontology, the researcher takes a position that seeks to either justify or deny the assumptions that are made (Burns, 2000). In line with the current study, the ontological assumption. That is taken by the researcher is given in the form of hypothesis, and stated below.志愿者服务论文代写
H1: The working areas of the London 2012 Games brought transformational individual and social changes to volunteers.
H2: The working areas of the London 2012 Games brought transformation community changes as part of activities of volunteers.
The hypotheses that have been given above will be tested through various means of secondary. And primary data collection as the researcher flows through the various other aspects of the methodology. With the use of hypotheses also, the implication is that the researcher is going to develop a theory by the end of the study, based on data that will be collected. This is in contrast to taking an existing theory. And using the data collection exercise to synthesise the theory (Bryman, 2004).
3.2.2 Methodological Approach
As indicated in the introductory section of the chapter, the methodological approach to the study shall be a mixed research method. The mixed research approach involves the use of both qualitative. And quantitative research methods in the data collection and analysis processes. The need for the combined choice of qualitative and quantitative research is because there shall be two basic forms of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. The qualitative study shall be focused on secondary data collection whereas the quantitative study shall be focused on primary data collection.志愿者服务论文代写
The reason for this form of distribution is that qualitative study generally deals with a detailed understanding of human behaviour. And explanations as to why people behaviour in the way they do (Creswell, 1998). Because this form of understanding is abstract in nature, data in these areas cannot be collected using numeric indexes as pertains in quantitative studies. The best way to collect such therefore has to do with abstractive mechanisms, of which the use of secondary data is very key. Quantitative study on the other hand deals with collection of numeric data that can easily be quantified. To this end, using primary data collection will make it possible to collect data that can be quantified such as the number of opinions that people hold on the outcome of the Olympics.
3.3 Pilot Study
For research of this nature where the researcher is highly concerned with the validity and reliability of data that are collected. Accuracy of data collection exercise is very instrumental (Allender, Cowburn and Foster, 2006). There are several means and ways by which these levels of accuracy may be achieved. One of which has to do with the use of pilot study. Generally, a pilot study requires a researcher to undertake a mock data collection exercise to test the viability of a selected research design. Potential of a sample size, research variables, and the accuracy of research instrument (Creswell, 2009). In line with this, the researcher set up a pilot research study field where primary data collection took place.
The pilot study involved the use of a group of students located in a university within the proximity of the researcher. The focus of the pilot study was to test the variables of the data collection instrument that the researcher was intending to use. Initially, the researcher targeted the use of in-depth interview, based on which an interview guide was prepared. The sample size for the pilot study was also made to involve volunteers with the London 2012 Games.志愿者服务论文代写
At the end of the pilot study, it was found that there were several important variables of data that the interview could not capture. This is because in using the interview, the researcher had to make use of only a small sample size. Questions were also to be minimised so that there would not be the consumption of time. There was therefore a decision taken to change the research instrument from in-depth interview to the use of questionnaire. Which could contain as many research variables as possible (Attride-Stirling, 2001).
对于这种性质的研究，研究人员高度关注所收集数据的有效性和可靠性。数据收集练习的准确性非常重要（Allender、Cowburn 和 Foster，2006 年）。有多种手段和方式可以实现这些精度水平。其中之一与试点研究的使用有关。通常，试点研究需要研究人员进行模拟数据收集练习，以测试选定研究设计的可行性。样本量的潜力、研究变量和研究工具的准确性（Creswell，2009 年）。为此，研究人员建立了一个试点研究领域，在那里收集了原始数据。
试点研究涉及使用位于研究人员附近一所大学的一组学生。试点研究的重点是测试研究人员打算使用的数据收集工具的变量。最初，研究者以深度访谈为目标，在此基础上编写了访谈指南。试点研究的样本量还包括参加 2012 年伦敦奥运会的志愿者。
3.4 Research Approach
3.4.1 Research Design
The research design of a research work seeks to outline the approach that the researcher uses in collecting primary data from respondents (Alberts, 2009). There abound several research designs, from which the researcher could choose from. For the sake of the mixed research method that was adopted however, the researcher used a case study research design. Which has been found to be ideal for mixed research methods of this nature (Amis, 2005).
A case study often involves the identification of a location or setting with a peculiar situation. That is worth analysing for the sake of drawing empirical research based conclusions on them. For the present study, the research setting. That was identified was Games Maker, which was the official volunteering programme put in place by the local organising committee of London 2012. In relation to the case study, a special case was developed from among the setting, which was going to be studied. This case was the impact of the London 2012 Games on the different working areas of volunteers. This case was taken from a more personalised perspective to centre keenly on volunteers rather than on the Games in its entirety.
3.4 研究方法 志愿者服务论文代写
案例研究通常涉及确定具有特殊情况的位置或环境。为了得出基于它们的实证研究结论，这是值得分析的。对于本研究，研究环境。确定的是 Games Maker，这是 2012 年伦敦当地组委会制定的官方志愿计划。关于案例研究，从设置中开发了一个特殊案例，将对其进行研究。这个案例是2012年伦敦奥运会对志愿者不同工作领域的影响。这个案例是从更个性化的角度出发的，重点关注志愿者而不是整个奥运会。
Cited Works 志愿者服务论文代写
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