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建筑学项目管理代写 项目风险管理代写

2021-09-22 14:44 星期三 所属: 论文代写 浏览:25


Project Management





建筑学项目管理代写 The project involves the construction of a family building. It is a house that my client has longed to possess all the entire life.


Table of contents

1.Project description———————————————————————3


1.2Project scope and objectives——————————————————-4

2.Network analysis———————————————————————–4

2.1Project netwoks———————————————————————–4

3.Work Breakdown Structure———————————————————5

4.Risk management——————————————————————–12




Project Description

The project involves the construction of a family building. It is a house that my client has longed to possess all the entire life. It is a two story building with a floor space of 200 square meters on each floor which totals up to 400 square meters. The building is Marina Yas and it is located in the address Abu Dhabi, Shahamah BAH 209. The end user of the project is thus a family and therefore in its design and construction so many considerations have to be made. Being a residential house the project has 2 bedrooms on the ground floor with a sitting room and a visitor’s lounge.  The ground floor has also a parking area for 3 cars and a kitchen too. The first floor has 4 bedrooms and 2 kitchens. It is also having a visitor’s lounge and a sitting room.

The project with regard to its location and the intended purpose it will need to be fenced well enough for the whole family’s protection and security.

The house too due to its magnificent nature it will require support systems like the drainage the telephone system and also the internet connection just to mention a few.   建筑学项目管理代写

The project scope is that stage in project management that is involved with the establishment and filing or writing down the individual tasks to be performed from one stage in the project to the other and also the requirements in each stage. It basically tries to narrow down the work from the whole project to sub-projects that can easily be monitored and those that can easily be managed by an individual from one step to the other and ensure quality and accountability in the whole project realization. Project scope ensures that the team and all the people who will be involved with the design and building of this house remain focused and will ensure that the planned work is done within the specified period. The basic items of concern it this are;


项目描述 建筑学项目管理代写

该项目涉及建造一座家庭建筑。这是我的客户一生都渴望拥有的房子。这是一栋两层楼的建筑,每层建筑面积为200平方米,总面积达400平方米。该建筑是 Marina Yas,位于地址 Abu Dhabi, Shahamah BAH 209。因此,该项目的最终用户是一个家庭,因此在其设计和施工中必须考虑很多因素。作为住宅,该项目在一楼有 2 间卧室,一个客厅和一个访客休息室。一楼还有一个可停放 3 辆车的停车场和一个厨房。一楼有4间卧室和2间厨房。它还有一个访客休息室和一个客厅。





Considering my client’s dream of a big house with a big compound, my firm which is involved with the design and building of houses designed this house. It is due to my client’s need of a house which will serve him as a residential palace and as a home to that the house has two stories and a big sitting room with both floors having visitor’s lounges. Also taken into consideration is the largest family of the client.  建筑学项目管理代写

My client is living with part of the extended family and this call for the large number of bedrooms. Also the family owns two cars and therefore the need to have a car parking area in the house with maximum security. The fact that my client is a businessman and the high chances of visiting business friends and deals, there was a need for an extra parking lot for another car making the lot to have 3 car parking area and a study in the story to avoid interruptions when deals are being made.



考虑到我的客户梦想拥有一个大院子的大房子,我的参与房屋设计和建造的公司设计了这所房子。 由于我的客户需要一所房子,作为他的住宅宫殿和家,房子有两层楼和一个大客厅,两层楼都有访客休息室。 还考虑到最大的客户家庭。

我的客户与部分大家庭住在一起,因此需要大量卧室。 此外,这个家庭拥有两辆车,因此需要在房子里有一个具有最大安全性的停车场。 事实上,我的客户是一名商人,并且有很高的机会拜访商业朋友和交易,因此需要为另一辆车提供额外的停车场,使该地段有 3 个停车位,并在故事中进行研究以避免中断 交易正在进行中。

2.Project scope and objectives

The intention of the project is to design and build a two story residential house. The design process should ensure that all the civil design, mechanical design, drainage systems, floor Layout, Structural Design, electrical installations design, sanitary and all the plumbing works design, computer network cabling and wireless systems design, fire prevention and protection provisions design, communication box for telephone lines and fax machine design are followed to the letter as designed by the individual engineers are professionals in the different areas to produce the end user house as exactly intended for this purpose and by the client (Bruce & Langdon, 2000)1. 建筑学项目管理代写

Network Analysis

Network analysis involves network scheduling and network control. In network scheduling, the main objective of critical path method is to determine the critical path. Critical path gives the minimum time for completing a project. It uses forward pass and backward passes routine in the analysis of a project network. In network control, there is monitoring of progress on the basis of the network schedule. It takes correction action when required. It also involves crashing the project and reward/penalty approach.


2.项目范围及目标 建筑学项目管理代写

该项目的意图是设计和建造一座两层楼的住宅。设计过程应确保所有土木设计、机械设计、排水系统、楼层布局、结构设计、电气装置设计、卫生和所有管道工程设计、计算机网络布线和无线系统设计、防火和保护规定设计、电话线和传真机设计的通讯盒完全遵循各个工程师的设计,他们是不同领域的专业人士,以生产完全符合此目的和客户预期的最终用户房屋 (Bruce & Langdon, 2000)1 .



Project Networks

There are various letters used while describing project networks. They include A, ES, EC, LS, LC, P (A), and S (A). A: activity identification (node), ES: earliest starting time, EC: earliest completion time, LS: least starting time, LC: least completion time, t: activity duration, P (A): set of predecessor nodes to node A, and S (A): set of successor nodes to node A.

Project networks are represented in tabular form as shown below.

Activity Predecessor Duration Calculation
Initiation NA 4 weeks ES=0

EC=4 weeks

Planning NA


5 weeks ES=0 weeks

EC=5 weeks

Analysis NA 1 week ES= 0

EC=1 week

Design NA 2 weeks ES=0

EC=2 weeks

construction Design 6 months ES=5 weeks

EC=6 months

testing design, construction 1 week ES=6 months

EC=6 months 3 weeks

Implementation Design, construction, testing 2 weeks


ES=6 months 3 weeks

EC= 7 months

Closure Design, construction, testing, implementation 3 weeks ES=7 months

EC=8 months

The critical path is 8 months


项目网络 建筑学项目管理代写

描述项目网络时使用了各种字母。它们包括 A、ES、EC、LS、LC、P (A) 和 S (A)。 A:活动标识(节点),ES:最早开始时间,EC:最早完成时间,LS:最少开始时间,LC:最少完成时间,t:活动持续时间,P(A):节点A的前驱节点集合,和 S (A):节点 A 的后继节点集。


活动 前期 期间 计算
引发 不适用 4 周 ES=0

EC=4 周

规划 不适用 5 周 ES=0 周

EC=5 周

分析 不适用 1周 ES= 0


设计 不适用


2周 ES=0

EC=2 周

建造 设计 6 个月 ES=5 周

EC=6 个月

设计 设计、施工 1 周 ES=6 months

EC=6 个月 3 周

执行 设计、施工、测试 2 周 ES=6 个月 3 周

EC= 7 个月

关闭 设计、建造、测试、实施 3周 ES=7 个月

EC=8 个月


Work Breakdown Structure

A Work Breakdown Structure is a tool used for defining work sections and developing and keeping track of the cost and time of a project according to laid down plans. The whole project gets broken down into smaller manageable parts, each of which is headed by a manager, has costs and schedule, some technical scope, and perhaps a geographically placed device or machine. Proper Work Breakdown Structures usually increase the chances of contractors or subcontractors coming up with successful projects. 建筑学项目管理代写

A WBS is a very useful instrument used in setting the scope and also used when coming up with effective external and internal communication. It is one of the best techniques used in the management of most projects. Project managers usually work with WBS. These tools have become indispensable to their daily operations. A WBS assists one on role leadership and gives one a good night’s sleep. WBSs that are well defined provide one, one’s team and stakeholders with a vision about their responsibility that needs completion.

Creation of a WBS

The process of coming up with Work Breakdown Structure is so simple for one who understands the nature of the job at hand. The following is a procedure of coming up with a Work Breakdown Structure.

Scope- a good WBS should define, determine and converse the possibility and the deliverable of any project that is based upon it. This is because all relevant stakeholders, contractors or subcontractors, clients, labor force, government agencies, will see it and make a good judgment about it. 建筑学项目管理代写

Manageable parts- Work Breakdown Structures split a complex task into smaller easier and manageable pieces. This makes it easier for stakeholders working on different section understand their parts and focus on it. It avoids confusion within a project because every task is carried out according to laid out plans and procedures. Furthermore, WBA foster good management on the part of project managers and other section heads.


工作分解结构  建筑学项目管理代写


WBS 是一种非常有用的工具,用于设置范围,也用于进行有效的外部和内部沟通。它是大多数项目管理中使用的最佳技术之一。项目经理通常使用 WBS。这些工具已成为他们日常运营中不可或缺的工具。 WBS 协助一个角色领导并让一个人睡个好觉。明确定义的 WBS 为一个人、一个人的团队和利益相关者提供了一个关于他们需要完成的责任的愿景。

创建 WBS


范围——一个好的 WBS 应该定义、确定和讨论基于它的任何项目的可能性和可交付成果。这是因为所有相关的利益相关者、承包商或分包商、客户、劳动力、政府机构都会看到它并做出正确的判断。

可管理的部分——工作分解结构将复杂的任务分成更小的更容易和可管理的部分。这使得在不同部分工作的利益相关者更容易理解他们的部分并专注于它。它避免了项目中的混乱,因为每项任务都是根据制定的计划和程序执行的。此外,WBA 促进了项目经理和其他部门负责人的良好管理。

Reporting and follow up- because tasks laid down in WBS have section heads and timelines, reports on progress are easily achieved. Section heads are charged with reporting on the progress of their partial or department.

This is relevant because, in case of any form of delay, the problem cannot persist because it is reported easily and remedied. Moreover, decision making and quick follow up is achievable in smaller organizations unlike large organizations. 建筑学项目管理代写

Foundation- when founding an organization or any institution, it is important to leave it with professionals, who will give good impetus to the organization. In construction, the same notion applies. The base of a structure is its foundation. The WBS represents the foundation of the building. A poorly drafted structure implies the building will not last and its quality gets compromised. The WBS gives clients, professionals, and other stakeholders a chance to critique the structure and give possible best options for the WBS. This will strengthen the final structure as great minds achieve great things.


Communication- communication refers to the way information is relayed among various people.

Information gives one power to act on given tasks and responsibilities. A WBS encourages effective and efficient communication in a project. Information flow between various parts or departments need no obstruction. For proper coordination and cooperation among various stakeholders, the WBS should define who is responsible for what and who reports to whichever person. When a WBS defined good communication pattern, it implies that people in the organization will coordinate well and come up with a successful project in the end.   建筑学项目管理代写

Success rate-the rate of growth of a project is used in determination of its fruition. Projects usually have deadlines that get set so as to track its progress. WBS helps project managers in approximation of the project durations. This includes a breakdown of work durations in various sections of the structure. This implies that if sections do not meet set goals by a certain date, the overall growth of the project gets affected. And hence its success rate slows down. When deadlines get fully met, the success rate increases and hence the overall success (Kousholt, 2007)2.     

Based on the above factors discussed, WBS is very essential when considering the success of any project that is laid down. For the success of a program, proper definition of WBS is necessary after getting enough information on the project and understanding of the project’s goals and objectives. Any project is manageable when broken down into small sections. Smaller departments are easier when exercising control and management. Assigning resources and budgeting for small departments becomes easier with the availability of a WBS, moreover, definition of component is more specific and detailed than the overall view of the project.  WBS consists of the child tasks, parent node, and top node. The WBS should give a 100% representation of the of parent task.


报告和跟进——由于 WBS 中规定的任务有部门负责人和时间表,因此很容易获得进度报告。部门负责人负责报告其部门或部门的进展。


基金会——在创立一个组织或任何机构时,重要的是把它留给专业人士,他们会给组织带来良好的推动力。在建筑中,同样的概念也适用。一个结构的基础是它的基础。 WBS 代表建筑物的基础。草拟的结构意味着建筑物不会持久,其质量会受到影响。 WBS 为客户、专业人士和其他利益相关者提供了批评结构并为 WBS 提供可能的最佳选择的机会。随着伟大的思想成就伟大的事业,这将加强最终的结构。


信息赋予了一种执行特定任务和职责的权力。 WBS 鼓励在项目中进行有效和高效的沟通。各个部分或部门之间的信息流不需要阻碍。为了各个利益相关者之间的适当协调与合作,WBS 应该定义谁负责什么以及谁向任何人报告。当 WBS 定义了良好的沟通模式时,它意味着组织中的人们会很好地协调并最终提出一个成功的项目。

成功率——项目的增长速度用于确定其成果。项目通常都有截止日期,以便跟踪其进度。 WBS 帮助项目经理估算项目工期。这包括结构各个部分的工作持续时间细分。这意味着如果部分在某个日期之前没有达到既定目标,项目的整体增长就会受到影响。因此它的成功率减慢了。当最后期限完全满足时,成功率会增加,因此整体成功(Kousholt,2007)2。

基于上述讨论的因素,WBS 在考虑任何已制定项目的成功与否时非常重要。为了项目的成功,在获得有关项目的足够信息并理解项目的目标和目的之后,正确定义 WBS 是必要的。任何项目在分解成小部分时都是可以管理的。较小的部门在进行控制和管理时更容易。随着 WBS 的可用性,为小部门分配资源和预算变得更加容易,此外,组件的定义比项目的整体视图更具体和详细。 WBS 由子任务、父节点和顶部节点组成。 WBS 应该给出父任务的 100% 表示。


Coming up with all needed tasks in a project is a risk that is common with WBS. This is because overall tasks are general in large nature and difficult when managing them. This implies that a good WBD should focus on parts of projects and not the project in its entirety. This is what gets termed as focus on deliverables. Deliverables are unique sub-projects that must be completed for a project completion. Deliverables take two forms; internal and external deliverables. Focus on deliverables come with many responsibilities. They give project stakeholders chances of communicating with team members and other workers. Deliverables give stakeholders time for basing their influence and track of the project. They as well have more precise guesstimates of tasks, timelines and tasks unlike the overall project. Deliverables also make one.


可交付成果  建筑学项目管理代写

在项目中提出所有需要的任务是 WBS 常见的风险。 这是因为总体任务在本质上是通用的,并且在管理它们时很困难。 这意味着一个好的 WBD 应该关注项目的部分而不是整个项目。 这就是所谓的对可交付成果的关注。 可交付成果是独特的子项目,必须完成才能完成项目。 可交付成果有两种形式; 内部和外部可交付成果。 专注于可交付成果伴随着许多责任。 它们为项目利益相关者提供了与团队成员和其他工作人员交流的机会。 可交付成果让利益相关者有时间建立他们对项目的影响和跟踪。 与整个项目不同,他们也对任务、时间表和任务有更精确的猜测。 可交付成果也是其中之一。

WBS for the Project Above

The top node- this is the end product of the project and is the two storey house.  The top node represents the first level of the WBS. This represents 100% of the total project. This first level index is designated as x.

The subsequent level- this is the first level of partition. For the above project, it has three major categories. They include foundation, walls, and roof. This level is easily identified because the project defined it well. The second level is usually numbered as x.x.

Third level-the second part is further sub-divide into other smaller sections. This section specifies the particular deliverables that are easy to measure and follow up. The third level has other smaller parts; such as raise and construct walls. This level is numbered as x.x.x  建筑学项目管理代写

The fourth level comes from the third level. The smaller stems from the third level form this part. The number of levels in a WBS depends on the complexity of the problem under discussion and the tasks needed. The walls in this case have increased the complexity. Other project managers usually leave this part making their Work Breakdown Structure very simple. The walls make it possible to comprise a fourth level. This level is usually designated x.x.x.x.


上述项目的 WBS

顶层节点——这是项目的最终产品,是两层楼的房子。顶部节点代表 WBS 的第一层。这代表了整个项目的 100%。该第一级索引被指定为x。

后续级别 – 这是分区的第一级。对于上述项目,它分为三大类。它们包括基础、墙壁和屋顶。这个级别很容易识别,因为项目很好地定义了它。第二级通常编号为 x.x。

第三层——第二部分进一步细分为其他更小的部分。本节指定易于衡量和跟进的特定可交付成果。第三层有其他较小的部分;例如提高和建造墙壁。此级别编号为 x.x.x

第四层来自第三层。较小的源于第三层形成这部分。 WBS 中的级别数取决于所讨论问题的复杂性和所需的任务。在这种情况下,墙壁增加了复杂性。其他项目经理通常会离开这部分,使他们的工作分解结构非常简单。墙壁可以包括第四层。此级别通常指定为 x.x.x.x。

The project under study is dependent on the WBS.

The WBS aids in the management and control of the program. WBSs are assembled in such a manner that they fulfill the needs for their own existence. A WBS needs consistency throughout all the levels. All levels should also be independent. There are many attributes that a good WBS should bear. A well drafted WBS has all deliverables arranged in a hierarchical structure. Different hierarchies are called levels.

Each level has 100 percent of the paternal level. The WBS should give a clear definition of the focus and the deliverables of the project. The document clarifies any form of information needed by various stakeholders and project team. It has work packages that allow definition of tasks that complete the work package. It must at least have two levels. The creation of a project Work Breakdown structure requires all stakeholders that get involved in the actual building process.

When there are management decisions that result in change of plans or designs, the WBS in continuously updated.

This happens before and after the project’s baseline. The structure of a WBS is tabular, graphical or textual. The three levels depict themselves clearly. It also uses adjectives or nouns where possible. Packages are programed in a hierarchy. The most important point is that a WBS defines 100% of external, internal, and interim deliverables significantly for finalizing the range of the project. A complete WBS has all the above attributes.  建筑学项目管理代写

During the construction of a WBS, the following points get put into consideration. First, the level of breakdown matters a lot. This is simple when one understands what the project needs. Complex projects usually have more levels than those of simple projects. The deliverables magnitude take on a mean value. They are neither too small nor too large. Too large deliverables have management difficulties. Accountability is another aspect. Properly designed WBS makes it possible for project managers to assign organizations, sub-contractors, and team members with deliverables. Structure gives a project manager an overview of the various parts of the project. The structure shows the plan of the project.


所研究的项目依赖于 WBS。

WBS 有助于项目的管理和控制。 WBS 以这样一种方式组装,即它们满足其自身存在的需要。 WBS 需要所有级别的一致性。所有级别也应该是独立的。一个好的 WBS 应该具有许多属性。精心起草的 WBS 将所有可交付成果按层次结构排列。不同的层次结构称为级别。

每个级别都有 100% 的父级级别。 WBS 应该明确定义项目的重点和可交付成果。该文件阐明了各种利益相关者和项目团队所需的任何形式的信息。它具有允许定义完成工作包的任务的工作包。它必须至少有两个级别。项目工作分解结构的创建需要所有参与实际构建过程的利益相关者。

当存在导致计划或设计变更的管理决策时,WBS 会不断更新。

这发生在项目基线之前和之后。 WBS 的结构是表格、图形或文本。三个层次清楚地描绘了自己。它还尽可能使用形容词或名词。包是按层次结构编程的。最重要的一点是,WBS 定义了 100% 的外部、内部和临时可交付成果,以便最终确定项目范围。一个完整的 WBS 具有上述所有属性。

在构建 WBS 的过程中,需要考虑以下几点。首先,故障程度很重要。当人们了解项目需要什么时,这很简单。复杂项目通常比简单项目具有更多级别。可交付成果数量取平均值。它们既不太小也不太大。过大的可交付成果存在管理困难。问责制是另一个方面。正确设计的 WBS 使项目经理可以将可交付成果分配给组织、分包商和团队成员。结构为项目经理提供了项目各个部分的概览。该结构显示了项目的计划。

Proper WBS gives the correct level of control on each stakeholder that helps in measuring the performance.

Communication is also important thing in a project. The project should give all the stakeholders autonomy in communication. Estimating is the process of approximating the cost and time of completing a project deliverable project. It is also the task of balancing the expectations of stakeholders and the requirement of control when the project is implemented.

There are various types of estimates. They include top-down (macro) approximations, such as group consensus, analogy, or mathematical relationships and bottom-up (micro) approximations, such as approximations of elements of the WBS (Work Breakdown Structure). Top-down approximations are done when cost and time of a detailed estimate are a problem. They usually occur during the inception stage when a WBS and full design are not available. Macro approximations need experienced personnel to make the approximations and they are highly inaccurate sometimes.  建筑学项目管理代写

There are three broad categories of costs in a project.

They include direct costs, direct (project) overhead costs, and general and administrative overhead costs. Direct costs are those chargeable to a specific work package. They include the cost of materials, equipment, labor, and other things that take direct charges. Direct overhead costs are costs that are directly linked to a work package or an object deliverable. They include the cost of specialized machinery, supplies, rent, and even salary. Administration and general overhead costs are costs apportioned to a project of an organization connected directly to a particular package.  建筑学项目管理代写

There are various reasons why people carry out estimates for structures before real work takes place. Estimates support good decisions and help in scheduling the work. They help in determining how long the project might take and its cost. It also gives an assessment of the worth of the project. The owners get an overview of its cost and assesses whether he has enough funds to run the project to its fruition. The development of cash flow needs of any project largely depend on project estimates. Estimates also guide in knowing the progress of the project and help in coming up with time phased budgets and establishment of project baseline.


适当的 WBS 为每个利益相关者提供了正确的控制水平,有助于衡量绩效。


有各种类型的估计。它们包括自上而下(宏观)近似,例如群体共识、类比或数学关系,以及自下而上(微观)近似,例如 WBS(工作分解结构)元素的近似。当详细估算的成本和时间存在问题时,会进行自上而下的近似。它们通常发生在 WBS 和完整设计不可用的初始阶段。宏观近似需要有经验的人员来进行近似,有时它们非常不准确。




There is a variety of top-down techniques used.

Previous history is very important. It is the best way of estimating work. For the above project, tracking of definite effort hours from preceding projects is essential as they give information that helps in estimating the new work. The effort hours and the characteristics of earlier works are kept in a database or a file. The project is then described in similar terms to view if common work took place in the past. If that happens, it means that there a good overview of the needed work. Partial (WBS) Work Breakdown Structure is another technique. With this technique, a traditional (WBS) is built, but it is taken down one or rather two levels.  建筑学项目管理代写

The different work components are estimated using the best guess. Another technique is analogy. According to the above case, analogy implies that the entire project needs a clear description of the organization and then the organization is asked whether a comparable development was conducted in the past. If a similar project exists, effort hours used gets extracted from it and applied to estimate the project at hand. The ration method which this document discusses deeply is similar to the analogy except that one has a foundation for relating work that has analogous traits-usually on a superior or slighter dimension.

For instance, one may find that the time taken to install a piece of software in a four storey building was 10 days, which leads one to believe that a two storey will take 5 days.

Expert opinion is another technique utilized. Internal or external experts help in estimating work. For example, if the project is embracing a technology for the first time, information from an outside firm that is versed with the technology is necessary. Most estimates base on experiences from other companies. An internal expert is also important. A person in the organization might have experience on the matter at hand, which one is implementing for the first time. Such personnel are of great use.

Parametric modeling is another process that has worked in many projects. This technique requires a pattern in the work, which will guide in the overall estimate through the use of a single estimate. For example, if a piece of work needs implementation of a particular technology in about 80 industries, the industries are grouped into classes depending on size. Once two or more industries have implemented the technology, their time and cost gets used to estimate the overall project. Estimate in phases is also conducted. The most difficult part of implementing a project is when one does not know the needed implements and time in the future.  建筑学项目管理代写

The project has the option of being broken down into a sequence of slighter projects and estimates of current projects put to use in estimating remaining projects. This reduces the level of uncertainty in the project estimation. For example, one can give a high-level approximation for an analysis stage, where one will collect the requirements of the business. Once the requirements are available, one is in a position of assessing the rest of the development. Management can calculate the cost-benefit to institute a decision on whether the project stops or progresses at this point and time (Murch, 2004)3.



过去的历史非常重要。这是估算工作的最佳方式。对于上述项目,跟踪先前项目的明确工作时间是必不可少的,因为它们提供了有助于估计新工作的信息。工作时间和早期作品的特征保存在数据库或文件中。然后以类似的术语描述该项目,以查看过去是否发生了共同的工作。如果发生这种情况,则意味着对所需工作有一个很好的概述。部分(WBS)工作分解结构是另一种技术。使用这种技术,可以构建传统的 (WBS),但将其降低一个或两个级别。


例如,人们可能会发现在四层楼的建筑物中安装一个软件所需的时间是 10 天,这导致人们认为两层楼需要 5 天。


参数化建模是另一个在许多项目中起作用的过程。这种技术需要工作中的模式,它将通过使用单一估算来指导整体估算。例如,如果一项工作需要在大约 80 个行业中实施特定技术,则这些行业会根据规模进行分组。一旦两个或更多行业实施了该技术,他们的时间和成本就会被用来估算整个项目。还进行了分阶段估算。实施项目最困难的部分是当人们不知道未来所需的工具和时间时。

该项目可以选择分解为一系列较小的项目和用于估计剩余项目的当前项目的估计。这降低了项目估算中的不确定性水平。例如,可以为分析阶段提供一个高级近似,在该阶段可以收集业务需求。一旦需求可用,就可以评估开发的其余部分。管理层可以计算成本效益,以决定项目在此时点和时间是停止还是继续(Murch,2004 年)3。

Phase ratios provide a way of giving a macro order of magnitude duration approximation for a project.

They get application as a sense check for micro approximation of the durations of the time apportioned to each stage of the project (Reid, 2007)4. It uses the approximation for one stage of the project to derive the probable size of other stages, and hence a general approximation for the project.  建筑学项目管理代写

For instance, if inception takes one month, and this is 5% of the work, then the work will probably take 20 months. The idea behind this technique is same project types usually take the similar percentage of time in each stage. However, phase rations do not form a good basis of project implementation as they lack accuracy. Phase ratio percentages get based on findings on the average proportion of time that larges samples of projects have spent on standard project phases.  The above project can take on the phase ratios below.

Phase Ratio
Initiation   5%
Planning 20%  建筑学项目管理代写
Analysis 10%
Design  建筑学项目管理代写 10%
Construction 20%
Testing 20%
Implementation 10%
Closure 5%



他们将应用程序作为对分配给项目每个阶段的时间的微观近似值的感觉检查 (Reid, 2007)4。它使用项目一个阶段的近似值来推导出其他阶段的可能规模,从而得出项目的一般近似值。

例如,如果启动需要一个月,这是工作的 5%,那么工作可能需要 20 个月。这种技术背后的想法是相同的项目类型通常在每个阶段花费相似的时间百分比。然而,由于缺乏准确性,相位配给并不能构成项目实施的良好基础。阶段比率百分比基于大量项目样本在标准项目阶段所花费的平均时间比例的调查结果。上述项目可以采用以下相比。

阶段 比率
引发   5%
规划 20%
分析 10%
设计 10%
建造 20%
测试 20%
执行 10%
关闭 5%

Risk Management

The goal of risk management is identifying potential contingencies or hazards before they happen so that risk mitigation activities get planned and invoked as required throughout the life of the structure or project. This mitigates adverse effects so that objectives of projects get achieved. It is a progressive process significant to a business and its management process. It addresses problems that can affect the achievement of set goals and objectives. Continuous risk management is usually applied in order to effectively see and mitigate the perils that have adverse effects on the project.

Efficient management of risks includes early and vicious identification of risk through the integration and collaboration with all stakeholders. The need for firm leadership across all the relevant stakeholders takes center stage in establishing a free and open discussion and disclosure of risk. Although most technical issues are very significant in the beginning and throughout the project, risk management must take into account both external and internal sources for schedule, cost, and procedural risk. Initial and fast risk detection is more significant because it is typically less costly, easier, and less disruptive in effecting changes and correcting efforts of work during the beginning, rather than the ending, stages of the development.


风险管理  建筑学项目管理代写



Risk management is categorized into three broad groups.

They include outlining a risk management approach, ascertaining and evaluating risks, and conducting risks identified, as well as implementation of risk prevention plans needed. Identifying sources of risks form a basis for planned examination of shifting conditions over time to decipher instances that affect the chances of the project meeting its set goals and objectives. There are internal and external forms of risks to a project. As projects continue in their implementation, more sources of risks get noted. Identifying risk categories giveaway for collecting and analyzing perils as well as certifying suitable analysis and management attention to risks that can have adverse consequences on meeting set project objectives. 建筑学项目管理代写

Limits for categorizing, prioritizing, and analyzing risks typically include risk consequence, which is the effect and sternness of risk amount, risk likelihood, which is the possibility of a risk occurring, and thresholds to call for risk management activities. Risk limits give consistent and common criteria for comparing a variety of risks that need mitigation. The absence of those limits makes it hard for gauging the effect of the alteration instigated by the threat and prioritizing necessary actions for risk management planning. The most common procedure is risk categorization, evaluation, and categorization, as well as risk mitigation needs.





Identification of issues, vulnerabilities, hazards, and threats that can affect project determinations or tactics is the base for successful and sound risk mitigation.

The risks get spotted and described in a comprehensive way before they get analyzed and managed efficiently. The risks get documented in a precise statement that includes the conditions, consequences, and conditions of risk occurrence. Identification of risks needs organization so that a thorough approach for looking for probable risks gets achieved.  建筑学项目管理代写

Effective risk management does not take into account every possible event. Developed categories and limits in risk management, as well as identified risk sources, provide the best means for identification of possible hazards. Risks identified form a basis for implementing risk mitigation activities. Keeping a record of risks for periodic reviewing is necessary as it gives an organization the chances of re-evaluating possible risks and changing situations so as to come up with sources and risks overlooked previously or new risks. Many methods of identifying risks abound. The typical methods are: evaluation of each element of the WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) for coming up with risks, review of risk management efforts from same projects through lessons-learned databases, conducting risk assessment using risk taxonomy, and evaluation of design agreement requirements and specifications.




有效的风险管理并没有考虑到每一个可能的事件。风险管理中已制定的类别和限制,以及已识别的风险源,为识别可能的危害提供了最佳手段。识别出的风险构成了实施风险缓解活动的基础。保留风险记录以进行定期审查是必要的,因为它使组织有机会重新评估可能的风险和不断变化的情况,以便提出以前被忽视的来源和风险或新的风险。许多识别风险的方法比比皆是。典型的方法是:评估 WBS(工作分解结构)的每个元素以提出风险,通过经验教训数据库审查相同项目的风险管理工作,使用风险分类进行风险评估,以及评估设计协议要求和规格。

There are various risks associated with construction.

The first risk is cost related risks. These result from variations in design as the project progresses, tight schedules of projects, variations introduced by the client along the way, unsuitable construction program planning during the beginning, occurrence of dispute over land or any other resource, inflation in the prices of building materials, excessive and rigorous processes of approval by administrative departments of government, incomplete approval and other requisite documents, poor and incomplete cost estimates, inadequate plan scheduling, and much more.  建筑学项目管理代写

The other risk is time related risks. This is brought about by tight project time plan, variations in design, excessive approval processes of the various government departments, change of design interest by the client, incomplete approval by the relevant authorities, inadequate scheduling of the program, various government bureaucracies, high quality or performance expectations, change of programs of constructions, and much more. Moreover, there are quality related risks that come with construction. These risks get perpetrated by very tight schedules for the project, inadequate scheduling for the project, planning not suitable for the program, inaccurate estimation of cost, poor management skills of subcontractors, great performance and quality expectations, change of programs of construction, lack of enough skilled labor force, change in design limits, and lack of coordination among stakeholders in the project.





The environment within which the construction takes place also pose hazards or perils to the project.

The risk associated with environment come as a result of tight schedule of the project, changes in the programs of constructions, inadequate managers and professionals, many approval procedures and processes expected by the government before issuing a construction permit, variations that the client bring into the construction, insufficient information on the site especially that of soil test and survey report, subcontractors without requisite competency, inadequate time allocation for the project, expectations of high quality work, and noise pollution caused by construction. Safety is another area of concern.  建筑学项目管理代写

There are risk that touch on safety of the workers and even the people within the environment (Kloppenborg, 1900)5. They are brought by factors such as those of other risks. They include very tight work schedule for the project, low management competency of the subcontractors, unsuitable construction program planning, change of construction programs either by the client or the contractor, overall safety accident occurrence, expectations of high quality work, changes in construction designs, poor coordination among various project participants, rigorous procedures of approval that are required by the various administrative organs of the government,   lack of adequate skilled labor, and inadequacy of managers and professionals.




环境中存在涉及工人甚至人员安全的风险 (Kloppenborg, 1900)5。它们是由其他风险等因素带来的。它们包括项目的工期很紧、分包商的管理能力低下、不合适的施工计划规划、客户或承包商更改施工计划、整体安全事故的发生、高质量工作的期望、施工设计的变化、各个项目参与者之间的协调不力,政府各行政机关要求的审批程序严格,缺乏足够的熟练劳动力,以及管理人员和专业人员的不足。

Risk Elimination, Mitigation, or Acceptance

Risk Associated With Clients

Clients must come up with practical schedules that allow enough but not redundant time that integrate all activities of design and construction. Because cost and time are usually related, lengthy schedules take cost much. Clients normally bring changes in design, planning, and construction. These commonly come as a result of two valid reasons.  They are: misunderstanding of the needs of the client by the contractor or a change of mind by the client. In the latter case, clients bear responsibility. For the former, establishment of a competent project team is necessary at the conception stage of the project so that it precisely defines the scope and the function of the business.  建筑学项目管理代写

Most clients bear high quality expectations in their mind. This implies that they may affect sacrifice of more time, cost, and safety of the project. The project may supersede the expectations of the client. Therefore, clients must give proper definitions of performance of quality to their programs based on a critical study of their market needs. Government bureaucracies and management routine weaknesses usually lead to incomplete approval. A client must come up with a knowledgeable team responsible for obtaining approval from various agencies of government and preparing documents for projects (Field & Keller, 1998)6.


风险消除、缓解或接受  建筑学项目管理代写



大多数客户在他们的脑海中都抱有高质量的期望。这意味着它们可能会影响项目的更多时间、成本和安全性的牺牲。该项目可能会取代客户的期望。因此,客户必须根据对其市场需求的批判性研究,对其程序的质量性能做出正确的定义。政府官僚机构和管理常规薄弱通常会导致审批不完整。客户必须组建一支知识渊博的团队,负责获得政府各机构的批准并准备项目文件(Field & Keller,1998 年)6。

Risks Related to Designers

Design variations during the design phase of projects are commonly linked to the designers and the client. Some designs are usually defective. To avoid the defective nature of designs, the design team must not only know establish a proper communication among members, but also clearly understand the demands of the clients. Tight program schedules and subsequent lack of sufficient program scheduling lead to a reduction in some programmes so that project timeline is met. Moreover, most construction projects are usually difficult to predict their timelines because of the uncertainties surrounding them.  建筑学项目管理代写

The choice of experienced designers will aid in reducing the difference between the practical project schedules and the proposed ones.  Poor estimation of project cost is attributable the level of competence of consultants/designers and attitude towards the project. Choosing an experienced and responsible designers and perhaps getting contractors involved during the early stage early help maximize the accuracy (Knutson & Bitz, 1999)7. Insufficient or inadequate information about the site, such as survey report and soil test, affect the progress of the foundation, excavation, and footing of the construction. Before any design begins, soil test, bore hole, scheme, and survey with relevant government authorities and nearby dwellings get conducted to confirm the conditions of the site, and hence reduce risks expected.


与设计师相关的风险  建筑学项目管理代写


选择有经验的设计师将有助于减少实际项目进度表与建议进度表之间的差异。对项目成本的估计不佳是由于顾问/设计师的能力水平和对项目的态度造成的。选择有经验和负责任的设计师,或许在早期阶段就让承包商参与有助于最大限度地提高准确性 (Knutson & Bitz, 1999)7。现场勘察报告、土壤测试等信息不足或不充分,会影响基础、开挖和施工基础的进度。在任何设计开始之前,土壤测试、钻孔、方案和与相关政府部门和附近住宅的调查都会进行,以确认现场的条件,从而降低预期的风险。

Risks Related to Contractors

Inappropriate structure-program panning result from poor innovative designs of contractors, their lack of knowledge in planning, program scheduling, which leads to differences in construction schedules. Mitigating the above risks call for an informative schedule during the design phase, and an analysis of constructability of the innovative design. Moreover, appointment of contractors must take into consideration their capabilities of implementing innovative designs and managing construction programs. Poor coordination among project participants usually results in chaos on the team and program management (Choudhury, 1988)8. Engaging a general manager, who is skilled in both program and team coordination, is very significant.

To improve quality and performance of construction, the participant’s conception of communication and cooperation needs strengthening.

Delays in phases of construction usually result from lack of skilled managers and professionals, as well as the insufficient amount of competent work force. Contractors have no other choices but map progress of construction all the time and coordinate with various project stakeholders so as to have enough managers, professionals, and laborers.  Disputes occur in most construction projects due to discrepancies and changes in design and construction.  建筑学项目管理代写

Contractors must discuss with their teams ad negotiate with project managers about possible changes work plans and put down the resulted delay in constructions logs when they encounter variations in design. Proper timing is necessary during constructions that noise gets imminent. If timing is a problem, the contractors should insulate the site from sound pollution. Lack of proper safety management, negligence of construction safety policies, and conflicts among programs usually lead to the occurrence of general accidents that compromise safety. When accidents occur, they reduce personnel change and prevent the construction growth. Therefore, a well planned construction program that takes safety at heart is essential in any construction site (Haugan, 2002)9.


与承包商相关的风险  建筑学项目管理代写




承包商必须与他们的团队讨论并与项目经理就可能的工作计划变更进行谈判,并在遇到设计变化时在施工日志中记录由此导致的延迟。在噪音即将来临的施工期间,适当的时间安排是必要的。如果时间安排有问题,承包商应将场地与声音污染隔离。缺乏适当的安全管理、施工安全政策的疏忽以及程序之间的冲突通常会导致危及安全的一般事故的发生。当事故发生时,它们减少了人员变动,防止了施工增长。因此,一个以安全为核心的精心规划的施工计划在任何施工现场都是必不可少的 (Haugan, 2002)9。

Risks Related To Subcontractors is Competency

The only key risk related to subcontractors is low competency in management. Unlike contractors who manage a construction site continuously, subcontractors usually apportion their resources and manpower to various projects with the aim of achieving maximum profit.  With little competence in managerial skills, subcontractors cannot manage their resources to the extent of achieving the requirements from various construction sites.  In addition to requisite abilities, subcontractors should have competency in management before being appointed (Gido, 2009)10.



与分包商相关的唯一主要风险是管理能力低下。 与持续管理建筑工地的承建商不同,分包商通常会将其资源和人力分配到各个项目,以实现最大利润。 由于缺乏管理技能,分包商无法管理其资源以达到各种建筑工地的要求。 除了必要的能力外,分包商在被任命之前还应具备管理能力 (Gido, 2009)10。

Risk Related To Government Bodies

Contractors and clients often complain about many approval processes that government requires from them before undertaking any construction. These risks are normally beyond the powers of the primary stakeholders. Government should always focus their efforts on creating a friendlier environment that makes approval processes few and time shortened for investment growth; cut down on bureaucracies. Project managers and other stakeholders must also maintain good and close contact with the local government officers and other agencies through effective communication and keeping genuine records that do not draw suspicion.


与政府机构相关的风险   建筑学项目管理代写

承包商和客户经常抱怨政府在进行任何建设之前要求他们提供的许多批准程序。 这些风险通常超出主要利益相关者的权力范围。 政府应始终着力营造更友好的环境,减少审批流程,缩短投资增长时间; 减少官僚主义。 项目经理和其他利益相关者还必须通过有效的沟通和保持真实的记录,不会引起怀疑,与当地政府官员和其他机构保持良好和密切的联系。

Risks Related To External Issues

The outside environment has its adverse effects on projects. The main issue related to the external environment is price inflation of materials used in construction. Prices of construction materials change in response to the changes in the rate of inflation. The relationship between the supply and the demand chain also affect the prices of construction materials.  Transfer of the risk to other parties requires that clients choose suitable types of contracts and contractors should avoid the use of fixed price agreements.  Contingency premium also aids in controlling price fluctuation.



外部环境对项目有不利影响。 与外部环境相关的主要问题是建筑材料价格上涨。 建筑材料的价格随通货膨胀率的变化而变化。 供需链的关系也会影响建筑材料的价格。 将风险转移给其他方要求客户选择合适的合同类型,承包商应避免使用固定价格协议。 或有溢价也有助于控制价格波动。


The above document has clearly presented a project management of a two storey building in Abu Dhabi. The project has been presented in a way that it takes into account all the necessary parts of a full project.  It has described the nature of the project from the initiation of the closure. The document also depicts the scope and the goal of the project it also comes up with a calculation of the critical path, which is the shortest time the project, would take to complete. Moreover, the paper has also touched on the Work Breakdown Structure. It has analyzed the WBS well. The document has finalized by looking for possible risk that the project may face.


结论  建筑学项目管理代写

上述文件清楚地展示了阿布扎比一座两层楼建筑的项目管理。 该项目的呈现方式考虑了整个项目的所有必要部分。 它从关闭开始就描述了项目的性质。 该文件还描述了项目的范围和目标,还提出了关键路径的计算,即完成项目所需的最短时间。 此外,论文还涉及到工作分解结构。 它很好地分析了WBS。 该文件已通过寻找项目可能面临的可能风险而定稿。

References   建筑学项目管理代写

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[4] “Reid, Arnold, P. (1999)”. Project management: Getting it right. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Web. 09 June 2013.


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[7] “Knutson, Joan, & Bitz, Ira. (1991)”. Project management: How to plan and manage successful projects. New York, NY: AMACOM.

Web. 09 June 2013. <http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=4B8GK2MDvgQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=project+management&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Q5-0UbSPKMfjO_H6gNgF&ved=0CGcQ6AEwCA>

[8] “Choudhury, Stanley. (1988)”. Project management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Web. 09 June 2013. http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=0Q4O4kwBAvQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=project+management&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Q5-0UbSPKMfjO_H6gNgF&ved=0CEQQ6AEwAg

[9] “Haugan, Gregory. T. (2002)”. Effective work breakdown structures. Vienna, Va: Management Concepts. Web. 09 June 2013.


[10] “Gido, Jack, & Clements, James. P. (2009)”. Successful project management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.  Web. 09 June 2013. <http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=JI6TgSfuCwIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=project+management&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Q5-0UbSPKMfjO_H6gNgF&ved=0CEkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=project%20management&f=false>


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