Critical analysis of New Product and Service Development Process of Business Firms
市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT This technology allows engineers to engage in design work not on the drawing desk, but near the computer intelligent terminal.
Opportunity identification, idea generation and screening
For the New Product Development (NPD) in companies, the NSD (new service development) is always go in hand with this item. It is quite crucial for the corporate to gain competitiveness (Balbontin & Yazdani, 2010). It shows the concepts, systems, and the main procedures for developing a new product. The new product development process mostly belongs to one of the following two situations, either in turn or go hand in hand.
The former is slow and the latter is not fast, but for different reasons. According to the sequential new product development process, the individual or team responsible for developing a part of the product should wait until the previous step is completed before carrying out their own work. For example, first the designer of the camera box starts to design the box, then the shutter designer then designs the shutter, and then the designer of the film rolling device starts to work, and so on. For this reason, it is not surprising that the design process is slow.
According to the product design process, the design of each component of the camera is carried out at the same time.
Finally, each component is assembled into a complete camera. However, this method also has its own problems- the design work of various components is often inconsistent with each other (Atuahene, 2013). The reason is that even if each design team carries out their own design work from the same basic design of the camera, it is difficult for other groups to know the changes (often some improvements) made by one group in the design in time. Therefore, the newly designed camera has to go back to the design and make some adjustments before it is ready for production.
For Kodak, the initial process for designing and innovating a product can be making step and step product details checking (Balbontin & Yazdani, 2010). The design work for camera which is a new product can help resolve the problems in it and make the manufacturing work to be integrated with the design work. Thus, the engineers and technicians in Kodak’s manufacturing department have to wait 28 weeks after the camera designers start the design work before they can start their own work. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Kodak reengineered the process of new product development. The way is to creatively use a new technology. This new technology is called computer aided design / computer aided manufacturing (CAD / CAM) (Hoyer, Chandy & Dorotic, 2010). This technology allows engineers to engage in design work not on the drawing desk, but near the computer intelligent terminal. With the displaying work of Kodak to be drawn to enhance the efficient working of the design work, the IT tools can be used to enhance the process. Nevertheless, the IT tools may also make the limited innovation of the new product.
(2) Idea and concept generation 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Kodak can redesign the product development with the IT aided tool with database in product design. For the technological design software, the integration of the tools and the product demands can be quite crucial (Hoyer, Chandy & Dorotic, 2010). For example, in a periodical time, the design team and the individual staff can cooperate with each other to identify the daily work in design process.
This is made to ensure that when the problems come out in a fast time instead of solving them after working in vain for weeks or months as before. In addition, this technology can also enable the engineering and technical personnel of the manufacturing department to start the mold design after only 10 weeks after the start of new product development, that is, immediately after the designers’ hand over the first prototype of a certain style of new product, they can start the mold design (Jong & Vermeulen, 2013).
For Kodak, the designing for new products can be coordinating engineering work.
The industrial work for automotive company can be attracting the consumer with the production of consumer goods. Kochi company has used the coordinated project to reduce the time required for the whole process from concept to new product development of 35mm disposable camera, that is, to 38 weeks (Jong & Vermeulen, 2013).
Also, theThe design process for the product can be molded with the design work completed to ensure deliberate and professional concepts can be embodied in to the new product designing process. The cost for manufacturing the product can then be well reduced. In this way, Kodak can make better cost management in production by cutting down 25% (Lillien & Morrison, 2012). 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
For the consumers that that produce the film using the camera, they can identify this tool function as well. The latter disassembled the camera into parts for reassembly. Meanwhile, Kodak did not make the camera that can be competing with the exisiting product. According to the original product design process, Kodak will take 70 weeks to design and produce a product that can compete with Fuji camera. Such a delay will make Fuji far ahead in the newly opened market and greatly benefit. In order to compete for time and market, Kodak reengineered its new product development process (Lillien & Morrison, 2012).
(3) Concept testing process (potential customer feedback and full screen process)
In fact, the focus of the early stage is to conduct in-depth understanding and learning of the content through literature survey, and we interview and understand the respondents for background knowledge to recognize their needs and ideas in this field. In the later stage, we will first form a qualitative report to distribute market research. At the same time, we will also optimize our topics and set them (Nijssen & Frambach, 2010). If we do consumer market industry survey and analysis, this part will form a question for our target consumers, set labels for the age group of the target population, interview and purchase habits, and then distribute the questionnaire and control the distribution amount.
In fact, most of the forms of questionnaires are only suitable for small-scale market research. When we want to do large-scale market research and develop new products, we are more willing to cooperate and conduct research with professional agents such as Nielsen (Ragatz, Handfield & Peterson, 2012). The companies like Nielsen also have different personnel divisions in their organizations, including market researchers, industry pain point analysis, industry competitive product survey, etc., which can help companies get more comprehensive and macro information control when doing market research.
(4) Sales forecasting 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Today, the product selected in our project case is Qingyang men’s shower gel. Men have more and more customized needs for the products they need, rather than using the male and female version. Then our first pain point is that the demand for men’s products is increasing day by day (Ragatz, Handfield & Peterson, 2012). Most men reported that the current products are more for women, so no one really understands men’s products. For these two pain points, we will find that I have such advantages.
The influence of Qingyang shampoo brand is currently the second largest commodity in shampoo sales. Consumers’ cognition of Qingyang brand is more convincing. As the top three daily chemical companies in the world, Unilever not only invites stars to publicize and expose outside the station, but also has some promotions / incentives / displays when the station and specific activities are implemented. Unilever interacts with consumers through various forms of promotional activities to improve our purchase and sales conversion.
In terms of threat, because men’s shower gel is actually a new market, the target consumers still need us to educate and guide them to buy, so we need a certain education cost.
Secondly, there will be some competitive products in the industry, such as Adidas men’s shower gel (Petersen & Handfield, 2013). Although the competitive products have little influence at present, they will also be one of the industry threats. But a situation must have two sides, just as a coin has two sides. In addition to the industry threats, we will also have great opportunities. We can see from the data that the market of shower gel in China is growing continuously and strongly. Such a growth trend is a potential of the industry. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
As we have just seen from the threat, because consumers’ demand for men’s shower gel is not particularly strong, the market of men’s shower gel is also growing rapidly, so this part is a potential and opportunity point of the industry (Petersen & Handfield, 2013). Compared with some developed countries, we can see from the figures that Chinese men’s shower gel still has a lot of room for growth. Specific data will be shared with you in the following articles.
Based on these aspects, we will also find that whether it is the demand of the industry itself, or Qingyang itself has a certain brand influence and resource investment, and then our whole threat is small, and the cost of consumer education is what we are willing to accept, then we will see the vigorous development of Shower Gel in China today, compared with other developed countries, there is still much room for growth in the field of men. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
(5) Product sales projection
It is firstly to make clear the market positioning of new products and look for all potential customer groups. Then, filter out the target customers who may use the new product from the potential customer group in combination with the user needs. According to the group range covered by the product (including region, age group, gender, etc.), the target customers’ acceptance of our products, price and other factors, the target customers with high intention are evaluated (in fact, the number of intended customers will change accordingly with the change of price, which will not be discussed in depth) (Petersen & Handfield, 2013).
Evaluate the touch rate to customers after our new products are launched / launched, as well as the conversion rate that customers are finally willing to pay, and evaluate our estimated sales volume. Unknown transformation data can generally be obtained through research. If there are similar products, the company can investigate each other’s products to directly obtain data. Another way is to investigate the target customers. During the investigation, samples need to be taken in as many ranges and dimensions as possible to ensure that the deviation of the results is smaller.
(6) Product use testing: 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Alpha test is also abbreviated as α Testing, also known as “internal testing”, is a testing method specially for product software. Usually, the R & D team or some high-quality customers are invited to the R & D site to test the software, and the problems found are discussed and solved in time. Therefore, it is a controllable test means, and has a fixed test method and routine (Pujari, 2014).
Beta testing is also abbreviated as β Test, also known as “public test”, is a test method specifically for product software. Usually, we will deliver the developed software to users. Users do not have to use the software on the R & D site, but use the software normally, and feed back to the R & D team to improve the product after finding problems (Pujari, 2014). Therefore, it is an uncontrollable testing method. We can’t clearly know how users will use software products, so some software will track and record user behavior to improve products. β The tested products cannot be charged to users.
Gamma test is also called γ Testing is usually the last round of testing before the formal launch of product software γ The test is to take the R of the release candidate as the mark, that is, the candidate release version (Tang & Murphy, 2012).
At this time, the test is usually carried out by the whole software product R & D team, including project managers, requirements analysts, testers, developers and other people. It does not rely on test cases and documents, and does not pay much attention to requirements. Instead, all members play the role of users to test. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Ø identify a small group of “seed” customers, which are often referred to as leading customers or leading users.
Ø build a test plan and identify key roles and responsibilities in product development, marketing, sales and product management. The test plan shall include the duration of the test and the disposal results after the test.
Ø the contract between the customer and the product company includes the project plan so that the customer can understand the objectives, duration and delay compensation. In addition, confidentiality provisions should also be included (Tang & Murphy, 2012). 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Ø customers should know what to test and how to feed back the results. The team needs to ensure that customer data can be collected, any final interviews can be organized, and products can be brought back to the laboratory.
The acceptance test shall pass a series of black box tests. Generally, the test may make products specification checking, and requirements by products specification that can satisfy the users’ needs and demands (Tang & Murphy, 2012). With the test completion for the designer, the assmbling of the prodcut can be well interfaced with the prodcut with final software test. The acceptance test shall check whether the software can work according to the contract requirements, that is, whether it meets the confirmation standards in the software requirements specification.
Acceptance test also needs to formulate test plan and process. The plan test can help shape the test steps, defining the test scenarios to show the consistency of the software that can help satisfy the customers’ needs.
The process can mainly focus on the functional design and the performance made by the product development. The completion and accuracy can be well implemented with the human-machine interface and other aspects (such as portability, compatibility, error recovery ability and maintainability) are satisfactory to the user. The test can show different results in product design (Vermeulen & Jong, 2013). One important item is that the tool can be well enhanced to be accepted by users. The other is that the software does not meet the requirements of the software requirements specification. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Before the formal release of large-scale general-purpose software, alpha and beta tests are usually required to test the function and performance of the software from the perspective of actual end users, so as to find errors that may only be found by end users. Gamma test is the final test (Vermeulen & Jong, 2013). After testing, the software is almost the final version on the market. At this time, the function development or improvement of the software is no longer carried out. The only possible modifications at this stage are limited code errors. When the software is ready for release and can meet various requirements, gamma testing begins. No other internal tests are required during the test.
(7) Product launch and marketing strategy 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
When the new product is launched, the news media will be called to hold a press conference. With the help of the news media and authoritative departments, potential customers will improve their understanding of the enterprise, enhance the corporate image, and pave the way for the next public relations work. Make an image model room and invite enterprises and peers to watch the company’s products (Witell, Edvardsson & Meiren, 2014). However, while loving to display products, it should focus on the current popular products, supplemented by the display of advanced but possibly rising products, so as to give customers the impression of not only catching up with the situation, but also having high-end R & D potential.
The product exhibition can kill two birds with one stone, which has not only been recognized by customers, but also revealed its own advantages in the field of peers, laying the foundation for the next talent reserve (Witell, Edvardsson & Meiren, 2014). First of all, we can participate in the Technology Expo or science and technology exhibition, list our products in the Industrial Expo, and provide physical products and detailed information. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
The purpose of introducing products to other customers in detail is not only to improve the popularity of our company, but also to communicate with other customers.
A successful product can benefit consumers the most. Products come from creativity, and creativity is inseparable from consumers. After that, we need to test the concept of the product. The concept and actual experience are completely different. The most frightening things in the test are the two biggest mistakes, one is to give up the ideas that instinctively succeed, and the other is not to give up the ideas that are doomed to failure.
Third, in the product development stage, product development can be making models, making actual samples, or building project models. Improve the functions of the product and highlight the advantages of the product. The fourth is the local market test. Carry out the test sale of products, adjust the marketing mix, and observe whether the marketing is effective and how much the marketing conversion rate is. Fifth, comprehensive commercialization. The sixth is the result evaluation, which evaluates the performance of the products and optimizes and adjusts the products through information feedback
(8) Public liability and environmental/ethical/societal issues
There are four reasons for environmental problems: population, politics, economy, culture and ethics, science and technology. Environmental problems caused by non scientific and technological factors can be solved by scientific and technological progress. However, relying solely on scientific and technological progress can not completely solve the environmental problems caused by other factors (Wang, Lee & Kumiawan, 2012).
Taking population as an example, this paper analyzes this problem. Human beings can find some substitutes for resources, so as to alleviate the resource crisis to a certain extent. For example, for the reduction of energy and the shortage of oil, we can use energy protection and build more effective machinery and equipment to improve the utilization of resources, and we can also find alternative and renewable energy to make up for it. However, as long as the world population continues to grow exponentially, technological progress alone will not solve the resource problem. We will discuss the utilization of hydrogen energy prospectively. 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
Whether science and technology can solve environmental problems is also related to the cost of science and technology to transform and protect nature.
With the progress of science and technology, the cost of applying science and technology to nature, obtaining natural resources and producing new products is gradually decreasing “The more powerful and far-reaching the benefits of a technology, the more serious the side effects after its failure and misuse (Wang, Lee & Kumiawan, 2012).
The more structures a technology can produce from disorder, the farther its product is from the thermal equilibrium, and the more difficult it is to reverse the corresponding process.” Moreover, with the development and utilization of non renewable resources, the content of some resources in nature, such as metal ore, will be reduced, resulting in a sharp increase in the energy required to extract metal from mineral deposits with the decrease of metal content, and the amount of waste produced by mining this mineral will increase sharply.
In this case, producing the same number of products requires more energy and generates more waste.
Moreover, with the improvement of environmental standards, the cost of waste treatment is increasing. The practice of waste treatment in developed countries fully shows this (Zhu, Xian & Dong, 2019). It may be asked here that the improvement of environmental standards is not unlimited, so the cost of waste treatment is not unlimited. This view is reasonable. For some pollutants, this is indeed the case. However, with the improvement of people’s living standards and the increase of the total amount of pollution, the requirements for environmental standards will be more and more strict, which will also reduce the cost of pollution control Moreover, from the perspective of the total amount of pollutants, it is sometimes necessary to completely remove pollutants (Zhu, Xian & Dong, 2019). 市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT
For example, for the air quality of a city, there should be a relatively certain standard conducive to human and ecology. It has a limit on the total amount of pollutants discharged into the atmosphere by human activities in the city. For example, for the emission of automobile exhaust, when the number of cars is When the amount of pollution is doubled, the pollutants emitted by each vehicle must be reduced by half in order to maintain the previous air standards; if the number of vehicles is quadrupled, the pollution will be reduced by 75%; if it is tripled, the pollution will be reduced by 87.5% (Zhu, Xian & Dong, 2019). At this time, the cost of pollution reduction is very high. This is also a reason why scientific and technological progress can not completely solve environmental problems There are two important reasons.
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