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北美代写论文 quality management systems代写

2022-08-09 09:25 星期二 所属: 北美代写 浏览:70

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Quality indicators

北美代写论文 This involves the management of the teaching stuff and other related activities and creation of good support to learning by the community.

 The quality of education and training is considered in all member states to be a concern of the highest political priority   北美代写论文

and correspond to the EFA objective of improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence for all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

The UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report (2005) came up with a framework to assist different governments in understanding of the concept of the provision of quality education in their individual countries. The framework consists of 5 unique dimensions which include: the Learners characteristics, which comprise learners who are ready to learn and are supported by their families and also their local communities,

the Context under which education is considered as a social context or setting whereby there is provision of an environment that is healthy, safe and gender-sensitive, the human resources which include teachers, educational administrators and other non-teaching staff which assist the school in all given fields and  the physical inputs are the infrastructure, like classrooms, latrines, laboratories, libraries and other materials, the other aspect is the Teaching & Learning Activities that take place  in the Classrooms. This involves trained teachers using learner-centred methods where the students are given major priority in handling the curriculum and the teacher as a consultant. Learning Outcomes which involves knowledge, skills and attitudes is also linked to the national goals of education.  北美代写论文

The National Assessment System for Monitoring Learning Achievement (NASMLA) and the Educational Standards & Quality Assurance Council (ESQAC) have identified 5 factors that have an impact on the quality of education:

i)The Curriculum organisation and implementation expressed in the professional documents prepared by teachers. For example lesson plans and schemes of work.

ii)The School Management and Community Involvement. This involves the management of the teaching stuff and other related activities and creation of good support to learning by the community.

iii)Teaching, Learning and Assessments. This involves classroom observation and interactions and the teacher’s personal and professional characteristics.

iv)The Student’s progress and achievement as indicated through internal and external examination results.

v)The School infrastructure, facilities and sanitation. This includes the classrooms, washrooms, play grounds and the laboratories.

It is therefore seen that most schools strive so hard to achieve the required target for quality in development.

DATA COLLECTION;

          DATA SHEET          
NAME  

 

 

 

 

School A

北美代写论文

Category  

Day School

Data 1 Student Population  

513

i) Boys  320 ii) Girls  

193

2 No. of Teachers  

15

i) Male  5 ii) Female  

10

3 Teacher’s Qualifications i) Masters  2
ii) Degree  12
iii) Diploma  1
iv) Peer Teacher  2
4 Textbooks Ratio     1 : 1
5 No. of Computers in school 3
6 No. of Classrooms 8
7 No. of Toilets i) Boys  10 ii) Girls  7
iii) Teachers  3
8 Feeding Programme  

Yes  北美代写论文

9 In-Service Teachers i) SMASSE  4
ii) SNE  0
iii) ICT  1
10 Supervision by Quality Assurance & Standards 2013/14 1  

 

11  

Form 1  Entry Marks

  260
12 Mean Grade  

 

6.9

北美代写论文
北美代写论文
          DATA SHEET          
NAME  

 

 

 

 

School  B
Category  

Day School

Data 1 Student Population  

400

i) Boys 290 ii) Girls  

110

2 No. of Teachers  

13

i) Male  4 ii) Female  

9

3 Teacher’s Qualifications i) Masters  0
ii) Degree  12
iii) Diploma  1
iv) Peer Teacher  1
4 Textbooks Ratio     1 : 2  北美代写论文
5 No. of Computers in school 2
6 No. of Classrooms 8
7 No. of Toilets i) Boys  8 ii) Girls  6
iii) Teachers  2
8 Feeding Programme  

Yes

9 In-Service Teachers i) SMASSE  3
ii) SNE  0
iii) ICT  0
10 Supervision by Quality Assurance & Standards 2013/14 0  

 

11  

Form 1  Entry Marks

  240
12 Mean Grade  

 

4.1

 

         

DATA SHEET

         
NAME  

 

 

 

 

School  C 北美代写论文

 

Category  

Day School

Data 1 Student Population  

270

i) Boys 171 ii) Girls  

99

2 No. of Teachers  

8

i) Male  3 ii) Female  

5

3 Teacher’s Qualifications i) Masters  0
ii) Degree  8
iii) Diploma  0
iv) Peer Teacher  0
4 Textbooks Ratio     1 : 4
5 No. of Computers in school 1
6 No. of Classrooms 8
7 No. of Toilets i) Boys  6 ii) Girls  5
iii) Teachers  2
8 Feeding Programme  

Yes

9 In-Service Teachers i) SMASSE  2
ii) SNE  0
iii) ICT  1
10 Supervision by Quality Assurance & Standards 2013/14  北美代写论文 1  

 

11  

Form 1  Entry Marks

  200
12 Mean Grade  

 

3.0

         

DATA SHEET

         
NAME  

 

 

 

 

School  D
Category  

Day School

Data 1 Student Population  

300

i) Boys 180 ii) Girls  

120

2 No. of Teachers  

8

i) Male  4 ii) Female  

4

3 Teacher’s Qualifications i) Masters  1
ii) Degree  7
iii) Diploma  0
iv) Peer Teacher  2
4 Textbooks Ratio     1 : 4
5 No. of Computers in school 2  北美代写论文
6 No. of Classrooms 12
7 No. of Toilets i) Boys  5 ii) Girls  5
iii) Teachers  2
8 Feeding Programme   北美代写论文

Yes

9 In-Service Teachers i) SMASSE  4
ii) SNE  0
iii) ICT  1
10 Supervision by Quality Assurance & Standards 2013/14 0  

 

11  

Form 1  Entry Marks

  230
12 Mean Grade  

 

3.4

         

DATA SHEET

         
NAME  

 

 

 

 

School  E

北美代写论文

Category  

Day School

Data 1 Student Population  

450

i) Boys 310 ii) Girls  

140

2 No. of Teachers  

15

i) Male  6 ii) Female  

9

3 Teacher’s Qualifications i) Masters  1
ii) Degree  12
iii) Diploma  2
iv) Peer Teacher  2
4 Textbooks Ratio     1 : 2
5 No. of Computers in school 2
6 No. of Classrooms   北美代写论文 12
7 No. of Toilets i) Boys  7 ii) Girls  5
iii) Teachers  2
8 Feeding Programme  

Yes

9 In-Service Teachers i) SMASSE  4
ii) SNE  0
iii) ICT  2
10 Supervision by Quality Assurance & Standards 2013/14 0  

 

11  

Form 1  Entry Marks

  250
12 Mean Grade  

 

5.3

In an effort to find out the exact situation of quality education in primary schools, the  researcher sought to collect data and analyse .  北美代写论文

The aim of the field study was to find ou the whether the schools investigated are providing quality education t learners using a variety of indicators. This assignment paper confined itself to analyse the school system using school quality indicators such as pupil staff ratio, pupil classroom ratio, pupil text book ratio, teacher academic qualifications, pupil’s mean score in KCPE exams , percentage of teachers’ qualification and gender ratios. Tables and different figures are used to analyze and discuss the findings.

It is in relation to this that researcher sought to find out the provision of quality education. Five (5) day secondary schools in the Githunguri Sub-County within Kiambu County were randomly selected – these were schools A, B, C, D, and E

The first indicator chosen was the pupil-teacher ratio. The researcher found that School A had a population of 513 students of which 320 were boys and 193 were girls and there were 15 teachers plus 2 peer-teachers on a part time basis. Therefore the student teacher ration worked out at 1: 34

School B has a student population of 400 of which 290 are boys and 110 are girls. The teachers numbered 13 with 1 peer-teacher added. This translates to a student teacher ratio of 1:13

School C has a student population of 270 of which 171 are boys and 99 are girls. The teachers number 8 and this result in a student teacher ratio of 1: 34

School D has a student population of 300 of which 180 are boys and 120 are girls. The teachers number 8 and this result in a student teacher ratio of 1:30

School E has a student population of 450 of which 310 are boys and 140 are girls. The teacher population is 15, and this results in a student teacher ratio of 1: 30

The Government guidelines specify a student teacher ratio of 1 : 40 in Secondary Schools, however the 5 schools selected for this research had a lower than target ratio, this could mean that there is a need for rationalisation in the distribution of teachers, this is because as observed in the study, three (3) of these schools are next to or near a tarmac road, therefore attracting more female teachers, while the other two which are far from the road performed below average and did not attract as many students during enrolment. This leaves the teachers with a smaller workload and fewer students to cater for.

The second indicator is, the student – Classroom Ratio.  北美代写论文

School A has 8  classrooms and 513 students – the ratio is therefore 1 : 64

School B has 8  classrooms and 400 students – the ratio therefore is 1 : 50

School C has 8  classrooms and 270 students – the ratio therefore is 1 : 34

School D has 12 classrooms and 300 students – the ratio therefore is 1 : 25

School E has 12 classrooms and 450 students – the ratio therefore is 1 : 38. This can be presented by use of a pie-chart as follows:

The above indicator is a cause for concern, because the legitimate student classroom ratio is set at 1:45 and the Government does not advocate over-enrolment.

A reason for these ratios could be that parents are attracted to enrolling their children in schools that have good management and administrative teams and so favoured these schools for their children. In the study it was found that School A had a higher than average academic achievement and this clearly contributed to the high enrolment level.

On the negative side of things, the schools that had a high student classroom ratio were suffering from overcrowding of classrooms and congestion within other related facilities as will be shown later in this study. This situation infringes on the provision of quality to the learners who are supposed to be healthy, happy and with adequate space to interact with others and the teachers for an environment that is conducive to learning and is at the same time child-friendly.    北美代写论文

All in all the classrooms have been built according to the Ministry of Public Works construction standards. They are of concrete floors, block walls and corrugated sheet steel roofs.

The third Indicator is the Pupil Textbook ratio. The findings pertaining to this indicator have a big range of ratios. A has an average of 1 : 1, School B has an average of  1 : 2, School C has an average of 1 : 4, School D has an average of 1 : 3, School C has an average of 1 : 2. It was noted that School A has invested a lot in reading, teaching and learning materials. The school has a well-established library of 2 storeys where students can borrow books or sit in there for silent studies and research. This compares to the other schools in the study that have invested in other projects such as the School Bus Project, Farming Projects and they are also being affected by under-enrolment of students.

This student textbook ratio affects the quality of curriculum and relevance targets, as the Ministry of Education recommends a ratio of 1 : 1 to encourage a reading culture, carry-home studies and learner discussion. However schools without adequate quantities of text books can disadvantage the students in these institutions. The quantity and quality of learning resources available will affect curriculum implementation directly because learning is strongly influenced by available resources especially textbooks; to support the process and direct ways in which these resources are managed. Management of these resources is a critical dimension in the attainment of quality education.

The Fourth (4th) Indicator is the Student – Toilet Ratio, the Government Health & Safety Guidelines stipulate a ratio of 1 : 30 for boys and 1 : 25 for girls.

The findings of this study were that all the schools studied were using pit latrines.

School A had 2 latrines for the teachers and 1 urinal for male teachers; there were 10 latrines for boys and 7 for the girls. This works out at a ratio of 1 : 32 for Boys and  1 : 27 for the Girls.

School B had 2 latrines for the teachers, 8 for the boys and 6 for the girls. This translates into ratios of: 1 : 36 for the Boys and 1 : 18 for the Girls.

School C had 2 latrines for the teachers, 6 for the boys and 5 for the girls. Ratios therefore are 1 : 29 for the Boys and 1 : 20 for the Girls.   北美代写论文

School Dhad 2 latrines for the teachers, 5 for the boys and 5 for the girls. This translates to ratios of 1 : 36 for the Boys and 1 : 24 for the Girls.

School E had 2 latrines for the teachers, 7 for the boys and 5 for the girls. The ratios therefore are 1 : 44 for the Boys and 1 : 24 for the Girls.

The data can be presented graphically as shown below:

The differences found in these ratios can be attributed to various factors including the catering in particular for the female student and the creation of privacy.  Schools were more involved through the CDF to construct more latrines for female students than male students. The high ratio for boys was mitigated by the fact that all the schools provided urinal only facilities for boys in addition to the latrines.

The fifth  indicator for the quality of education is the teaching staff’s qualifications. Interestingly, the schools in this region have developed a concept whereby the students who performed well during the previous years are brought in to peer tutor and guide the learners as they wait to join their colleges. They are paid by the Boards of Management on a part-time basis. It is also noted that female teacher dominate in the staffrooms in this Sub-County. The statistical finding are laid out below.

School Designation A B C D E
Total Teacher Population 15 13 8 8 15
Male 5 4 3 4 6
Female 10 9 5 4 9
Highest Qualification Obtained – Masters 2 0 0 1 1
Bachelor’s Degree 12 12 8 7 12
Diploma 1 1 0 0 2

This table indicates that all teachers have acquired the academic qualifications that are expected and more impressively some teachers have gone the extra mile to advance their education by attaining the standard required for the award of a Master’s Degree. This is an important dimension as it translates to how the teachers transfer the pedagogy acquired during training into practice. It also improves class management and skills in the implementation of the learner-centred curriculum.

The researcher also discovered that several of the teachers had attended crucial in-servicing programmes.

In School A, 4 of the Science and Maths teachers had attended SMASSE and one in ICT. School B had sent 3 teachers for SMASSE, School C had sent 2, school D had sent 4 and  1 ICT Teacher and School E had sent 4 teachers for SMASSE and 2 Teachers for ICT. However, with the provision of inclusive education that caters for learners with special needs, none of the 5 schools had in-serviced any of their teachers   北美代写论文

Finally the researcher wanted to explore the monitoring of the quality of the education and the findings indicated that the Quality Assurance & Standards team had visited Schools A and C just once in the years 2013/ 2014. This indicates that little is being done by the concerned institutions in the ongoing assessment of the quality of education, the monitoring of curriculum implementation, advising and guiding the teachers and capacity building of the teachers and other stakeholders.

On the subject of pupil achievement, the standardised examinations set by KNEC were used to evaluate the learners.

The 2013 KCSE results indicated that School A achieved a mean grade of 6.9, School B had 4.1, School C had 3.0, School D had 3.4 and School E had 5.3 – this translates to the relationship between the quality and availability of resources and the school academic achievement.

There is a strong correlation of the quality of the learning environment with the achievement of the pupils. Quality physical, psycho-social and service delivery sets the stage for proper learning to take place. The management and administration of the schools also create a favourable learning environment by the provision of sufficient instructional materials such as books, teaching aids, comfortable working and learning conditions for both teachers and students respectively. They also have the initiative in the provision of welfare services such as, spiritual issues, guidance and counselling services, in addition, Career Guidance. They motivate teachers and learners by providing enabling learning to take place, hence the promotion of quality education.

Recommendations  北美代写论文

It is important for the government to provide adequate funds that would enable the school BOMs to improve on the infrastructures, afford the in servicing of teachers  and meet the quality assurance. Due to teacher shortage in some subjects, the government should recruit and deploy teachers to the specific stations and improve on recruitment of the quality assurance staff. There should be seriousness in the teaching of Life Skills subject to improve on the quality of educational outputs, as well as include the special Needs education to cater for learners with disabilities.

Conclusion

Quality education produces quality graduates at all levels, quality teachers, quality teaching and learning process, quality learning environments and quality outcomes. However, it is a huge challenge for all concerned, especially within a country in the developing world like Kenya. Therefore it should be embraced by all concerned stakeholders so as to enhance the promotion and development of quality schooling which will ultimately result in the attainment of the Education for All goal and therefore the country will benefit from having a literate and highly skilled workforce in the larger society.

References

  1. Republic of Kenya & UNESCO (2012).EFA End Decade Assessment. Ministry of Education, Nairobi
  2. Republic of Kenya( 2005). Kenya Education Support Programme 2005-2010. Ministry of Education, Nairobi
  3. Republic of Kenya (2003). Persons with Disabilities Act.  Attorney General, Nairobi
  4. Republic of Kenya, (2008).  Safety Standards Manual for Schools. Ministry of Education, Nairobi
  5. UNESCO (2005). EFA Global Monitoring Report: The Quality Imperative, Paris – Author and UNESCO.

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