Malloc Lab: Writing a Dynamic Storage Allocator
动态存储分配器代写 This lab requires submitting two versions of your code: one as an initial checkpoint, and the second as your final version.
This lab requires submitting two versions of your code: one as an initial checkpoint, and the second as your final version.
In this lab you will write a dynamic memory allocator which will consist of the malloc, free, realloc, and calloc functions. Your goal is to implement an allocator that is correct, efficient, and fast.
We strongly encourage you to start early. The total time you spend designing and debugging can easily eclipse the time you spend coding.
Bugs can be especially pernicious and difficult to track down in an allocator, and you will probably spend a significant amount of time debugging your code. Buggy code will not get any credit.
This lab has been heavily revised from previous versions. Do not rely on advice or information you may find on the Web or from people who have done this lab before. It will most likely be misleading or outright wrong.1 Be sure to read all of the documentation carefully and especially study the baseline implementation we have provided.
1 Not to mention the fact that it would be an academic integrity violation!
2 Logistics 动态存储分配器代写
This is an individual project. You should do this lab on one of the Shark machines.
To get your lab materials, click “Download Handout” on Autolab, enter your Andrew ID, and follow the instructions. Then, clone your repository on a Shark machine by running:
$ git clone https://github.com/cmu15213-m22/malloclab-m22-513-<YOUR USERNAME>.git or, if you use SSH keys,
$ git clone [email protected]:cmu15213-m22/malloclab-m22-513-<YOUR USERNAME>.git
The only file you will turn in is mm.c. All the code for your allocator must be in this file. The rest of the provided code allows you to evaluate your allocator. Using the command make will generate four driver programs: mdriver, mdriver-dbg, mdriver-emulate, and mdriver-uninit, as described in section 6. Your final autograded score is computed by driver.pl, as described in section 7.1.
To test your code for the checkpoint submission, run mdriver and/or driver.pl with the -C flag. To test your code for the final submission, run mdriver and/or driver.pl with no flags.
These commands will report accurate utilization numbers for your allocator. They will only report approximate throughput numbers. The Autolab servers will generate different throughput numbers, and the servers’ numbers will determine your actual score. This is discussed in more detail in Section 7.
3 Required Functions 动态存储分配器代写
Your allocator must implement the following functions. They are declared for you in mm.h and you will find starter definitions in mm.c. Note that you cannot alter mm.h in this lab.
bool mm_init(void); void *malloc(size_t size); void free(void *ptr); void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size); void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size); bool mm_checkheap(int);
We provide you two versions of memory allocators:
A fully-functional implicit-list allocator. We recommend that you use this code as your starting point.
Note that the provided code does not implement block coalescing. The absence of this feature will cause external fragmentation to be very high, so you should implement coalescing. We strongly recommend considering all cases you need to implement before writing code for coalesce_block; the lecture slides should help you identify and reason about these cases.
A functional implementation that runs quickly but gets very poor utilization, because it never reuses any blocks of memory.
Your allocator must run correctly on a 64-bit machine. It must support a full 64-bit address space, even though current implementations of x86-64 machines support only a 48-bit address space.
Your submitted mm.c must implement the following functions:
bool mm_init(void): 动态存储分配器代写
Performs any necessary initializations, such as allocating the initial heap area. The return value should be false if there was a problem in performing the initialization, true otherwise.
You must reinitialize all of your data structures each time this function is called, because the drivers call your mm_init function every time they begin a new trace to reset to an empty heap.
void *malloc(size_t size):
Returns a pointer to an allocated block payload of at least size bytes. The entire allocated block should lie within the heap region and should not overlap with any other allocated block.
Your malloc implementation must always return 16-byte aligned pointers, even if size is smaller than 16.
void free(void *ptr) :
If ptr is NULL, does nothing. Otherwise, ptr must point to the beginning of a block payload returned by a previous call to malloc, calloc, or realloc and not already freed. This block is deallocated. Returns nothing.
void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size): 动态存储分配器代写
Changes the size of a previously allocated block.
If size is nonzero and ptr is not NULL, allocates a new block with at least size bytes of payload, copies as much data from ptr into the new block as will fifit (that is, copies the smaller of size, or the payload size of ptr, bytes), frees ptr, and returns the new block.
If size is nonzero but ptr is NULL, does the same thing as malloc(size).
If size is zero, does the same thing as free(ptr) and then returns NULL.
Your realloc implementation will have only minimal impact on measured throughput or utilization. A correct, simple implementation will suffice.
void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size):
Allocates memory for an array of nmemb elements of size bytes each, initializes the memory to all bytes zero, and returns a pointer to the allocated memory. Your calloc implementation will have only minimal impact on measured throughput or utilization. A correct, simple implementation will suffice.
bool mm_checkheap(int line): 动态存储分配器代写
Scans the entire heap and checks it for errors. This function is called the heap consistency checker, or simply heap checker.
A quality heap checker is essential for debugging your malloc implementation. Many malloc bugs are too subtle to debug using conventional gdb techniques. A heap consistency checker can help you isolate the specific operation that causes your heap to become inconsistent.
Because of the importance of the consistency checker, it will be graded, by hand; section 7.2 describes the requirements for your implementation in greater detail. We may also require you to write your heap checker before coming to office hours.
The mm_checkheap function takes a single integer argument that you can use any way you want.
One technique is to use this argument to pass in the line number where it was called, using the __LINE__ macro:
This allows you to print the line number where mm_checkheap was called, if you detect a problem with the heap.
The driver will sometimes call mm_checkheap; when it does this it will always pass an argument of 0.
The semantics of malloc, realloc, calloc, and free match the semantics of the functions with the same names in the C library. You can type man malloc in the shell for more documentation.
4 Support Routines 动态存储分配器代写
To satisfy allocation requests, dynamic memory allocators must themselves request memory from the operating system, using “primitive” system operations that are less flexible than malloc and free. In this lab, you will use a simulated version of one such primitive. It is implemented for you in memlib.c and declared in memlib.h.
void *mem_sbrk(intptr_t incr): Expands the heap by incr bytes, and returns a generic pointer to the first byte of the newly allocated heap area. If the heap cannot be made any larger, returns (void *)
-1. (Caution: this is different from returning NULL.)
Each time your mm_init function is called, the heap has just been reset to zero bytes long.
mem_sbrk cannot make the heap smaller; it will fail (returning (void *) -1) if size is negative.
(Data type intptr_t is defined to be a signed integer large enough to hold a pointer. On our machines it is the same size as size_t, but signed.)
This function is based on the Unix system call sbrk, but we have simplified it by removing the ability to make the heap smaller.
You can also use these helper functions, declared in memlib.h: 动态存储分配器代写
void *mem_heap_lo(void): Returns a generic pointer to the first valid byte in the heap.
void *mem_heap_hi(void): Returns a generic pointer to the last valid byte in the heap.
Caution: The definition of “last valid byte” may not be intuitive! If your heap is 8 bytes large, then the last valid byte will be 7 bytes from the start—not an aligned address.
size_t mem_heapsize(void): Returns the current size of the heap in bytes.
You can also use the following standard C library functions, but only these: memcpy, memset, printf, fprintf, and sprintf.
Your mm.c code may only call the externally-defined functions that are listed in this section. Otherwise, it must be completely self-contained.
5 Programming Rules 动态存储分配器代写
Any allocator that attempts to detect which trace is running will receive a penalty of 20 points. On the other hand, you should feel free to write an adaptive allocator—one that dynamically tunes itself according to the general characteristics of the different traces.
You may not change any of the interfaces in mm.h, or any of the other C source files and headers besides mm.c. (Autolab only processes your mm.c; it will not see changes you make to any other file.) However, we strongly encourage you to use static helper functions in mm.c to break up your code into small,easy-to-understand segments.
You may not change the Makefile (again, Autolab will not see any changes you make there) and your code must compile with no warnings using the warnings flags we selected.
You are not allowed to declare large global data structures such as large arrays, trees, or lists in mm.c. You are allowed to declare small global arrays, structs, and scalar variables, and you may have as much constant data (defined with the const qualifier) as you like. Specifically, you may declare no more than 128 bytes of writable global variables, total. This is checked automatically, as described in Section 7.1.4.
The reason for this restriction is that global variables are not accounted for when calculating your memory utilization. If you need a large data structure for some reason, you should allocate space for it within the heap, where it will count toward external fragmentation.
Dynamic memory allocators cannot avoid doing operations that the C standard labels as “undefined behavior.” They need to treat the heap as a single huge array of bytes and reinterpret those bytes as different data types at different times. It is rarely appropriate to write code in this style, but in this lab it is necessary.
We ask you to minimize the amount of undefined behavior in your code. For example, instead of directly casting between pointer types, you should explicitly alias memory through the use of unions. Additionally, you should confine the pointer arithmetic to a few short helper functions, as we have tried to do in the handout code.
In the provided baseline code, we use a zero-length array to declare a payload element in the block struct. This is a non-standard compiler extension, which, in general, we discourage the use of, but in this lab we feel it is better than any available alternative.
A zero-length array is not the same as a C99 “flexible array member;” it can be used in places where a flexible array member cannot. For example, a zero-length array can be a member of a union. Using zero-length arrays this way is our recommended strategy for declaring a block struct that might contain payload data, or might contain something else (such as free list pointers).
The practice of using macros instead of function definitions is now obsolete. Modern compilers can perform inline substitution of small functions,eliminating the overhead of function calls. Use of inline functions provides better type checking and debugging support.
In this lab, you may only use #define to define constants (macros with no parameters) and debugging macros that are enabled or disabled at compile time. Debugging macros must have names that begin with the prefix “dbg_” and they must have no effect when the macro-constant DEBUG is not defined.
Here are some examples of allowed and disallowed macro definitions:
#define DEBUG 1 OK Defines a constant #define CHUNKSIZE (1<<12) OK Defines a constant #define WSIZE sizeof(uint64_t) OK Defines a constant #define dbg_printf(...) printf(__VA_ARGS__) OK Debugging support #define GET(p) (*(unsigned int *)(p)) Not OK Has parameters #define PACK(size, alloc) ((size)|(alloc)) Not OK Has parameters
When you run make, it will run a program that checks for disallowed macro definitions in your code. This checker is overly strict—it cannot determine when a macro definition is embedded in a comment or in some part of the code that has been disabled by conditional-compilation directives. Nonetheless, your code must pass this checker without any warning messages.
The code shown in the textbook (Section 9.9.12, and available from the CS:APP website) is a useful source of inspiration for the lab, but it does not meet the required coding standards. It does not handle 64-bit allocations, it makes extensive use of macros instead of functions, and it relies heavily on lowlevel pointer arithmetic. Similarly, the code shown in K&R does not satisfy the coding requirements. You should use the provided mm.c as your starting point.
It is okay to look at any high-level descriptions of algorithms found in the textbook or elsewhere, but it is not acceptable to copy or look at any code of malloc implementations found online or in other sources, except for theallocators described in the textbook, in K&R, or as part of the provided code.
It is okay to adapt code for useful generic data structures and algorithms (e.g. linked lists, hash tables, search trees, and priority queues) from any external source (e.g. K&R, Wikipedia, The Art of Computer Programming) as long as it was not already part of a memory allocator. You must include (as a comment) an attribution of the origins of any borrowed code.
Your allocator must always return pointers that are aligned to 16-byte boundaries, even if the allocation is smaller than 16 bytes. The driver will check this requirement.
6 Driver Programs 动态存储分配器代写
Four driver programs are generated when you run make.
mdriver is used by Autolab to test your allocator’s correctness, utilization, and throughput on a standard set of benchmark traces.
mdriver-emulate is used by Autolab to test your allocator with a heap spanning the entire 64-bit address space. In addition to the standard benchmark traces, it will run a set of giant traces that make very large allocation requests.
As the name implies, this test is an emulation: it does not actually allocate exabytes of memory. However, it verifies that your allocator could handle allocations that large, if the hardware permitted them. Failing the checks performed by mdriver-emulate leads to grade penalties, as described in section 7.1.4.
mdriver-dbg is for you to use when debugging your allocator.
It is the same program as mdriver, with three notable differences: 动态存储分配器代写
- It is compiled with DEBUG defined, which enables the dbg_ macros at the top of mm.c. Without this defined, functions like dbg_printf and dbg_assert will not have any effect.
- It is compiled with optimization level -O0, which allows GDB to display more meaningful debugging information.
- It uses the AddressSanitizer instrumentation tool2 to detect several classes of errors that are easy to make when writing an allocator.
mdriver-uninit is also for you to use when debugging. It uses the MemorySanitizer instrumentation tool3 to detect uses of uninitialized memory.
mdriver-dbg, mdriver-emulate, and mdriver-uninit are much slower than mdriver, so they only report correctness and the utilization score for each trace. All four programs should report the same utilization scores for each trace that they all run (only mdriver-emulate runs the giant traces).
6.1 Trace files 动态存储分配器代写
The driver programs are controlled by a set of trace files that are included in the traces subdirectory. Each trace file contains a sequence of commands that instruct the driver to call your malloc, realloc, and free routines in some sequence. Autolab will use the same trace files to grade your work.
When the driver programs are run, they will process each trace file multiple times: once to make sure your implementation is correct, once to determine the space utilization, and between 3 and 20 more times to determine the throughput.
Some of the traces are short traces that are included mainly for detecting errors and debugging. Your utilization and performance scores on these traces do not count toward your grade. The traces that do count are marked with a ‘*’ in the output of mdriver.
6.2 Command-line arguments 动态存储分配器代写
The drivers accept the following command-line arguments.
-C: Apply the scoring standards for the checkpoint, rather than for the final submission.
-f tracefile: Only run the trace tracefile. Correctness, utilization, and performance are all tested.
-c tracefile: Only run the trace tracefile, and only test it for correctness. This still runs the trace twice, to verify that mm_init correctly resets your heap.
-v level: Set the verbosity level to the specified value. The level can be 0, 1, or 2; the default level is 1. Raising the verbosity level causes additional diagnostic information to be printed as each trace file is processed. This can help you determine which trace file is causing your allocator to fail.
-d level: Controls the amount of validity checking performed by the driver. This is separate from the DEBUG compile-time define.
At debug level 0, very little checking is done, which is useful when testing performance only.
At debug level 1, the driver checks allocation payloads to ensure that they are not overwritten by unrelated calls into your code. This is the default.
At debug level 2, the driver will also call your implementation of mm_checkheap after each operation. This mode is slow, but it can help identify the exact point at which an error occurs.
Additional arguments can be listed by running mdriver -h.
Malloc Lab is worth 11% of your final grade in the course. This is divided into the Checkpoint and Final submissions, which have separate due dates.
7.1 Autograded score
driver.pl is the program that Autolab will use to calculate your score. For the checkpoint submission, it will be run with the -C flag; for the final submission, it will be run with no flags. This sets the grading standards, as described later in this section.
driver.pl computes the autograded score in two steps. First, mdriver is run to obtain the performance index P, which is a number between 0 and 100 (inclusive). If mdriver detects incorrect behavior on any trace, P will be zero. Otherwise, P is computed from both utilization and throughput, as described below (Section 7.1.1). Second, mdriver-emulate is run to detect forms of incorrect behavior that mdriver cannot detect. Incorrect behavior detected by mdriver-emulate will cause deductions from P, as described in Section 7.1.4.
Your autograded score is P minus any deductions. Separately, your code will be read by TAs and graded on the thoroughness of your heap checker (see Section 7.2) and for overall style (see Section 7.3).
7.1.1 Performance index 动态存储分配器代写
Both memory and CPU cycles are expensive system resources, so the performance index P is a weighted sum of your allocator’s space utilization and throughput. The weights are different for the checkpoint and the final submission:
That is, in English, for the checkpoint your score will be computed as 20% utilization and 80% throughput, and for the final it will be 60% utilization and 40% throughput.
7.1.2 Utilization 动态存储分配器代写
The utilization of a single trace is the peak ratio between the total amount of memory used by the driver at any one moment (i.e. allocated via malloc but not yet freed via free) and the size of the heap used by your allocator. All allocators have memory overhead: it is not possible to achieve a utilization of 100%. Your goal is to make the utilization as high as possible.
The utilization of your allocator, U, will be calculated as the average utilization across all traces. The associated score will be computed as follows:
- If U ≤ Uminthen you will receive no credit for utilization.
- If Umin< U < Umaxthen your utilization score will scale linearly with U.
- If U ≥ Umaxthen you will receive full credit for utilization.
The values of Umin and Umax are different for the checkpoint and the final submission:
7.1.3 Throughput 动态存储分配器代写
The throughput of a single trace is measured by the average number of operations completed per second, expressed in kilo-operations per second or KOPS. A trace that takes T seconds to perform n operations will have a throughput of n/(1000 · T) KOPS.
Throughput measurements vary according to the type of CPU running the program. We will compensate for this machine dependency by evaluating the throughput of your implementations relative to those of reference implementations running on the same machine. For information on how this is done, see Appendix A.2.
The throughput of your allocator, T, will be calculated as the average throughput across all traces and then compared to the reference throughput Tref which will change from checkpoint to final, and from machine to machine. The associated score will be computed as follows:
- If T ≤ Tminthen you will receive no credit for throughput.
- If Tmin < T < Tmaxthen your throughput score will scale linearly with T.
- If T ≥ Tmaxthen you will receive full credit for throughput.
|Checkpoint||0.1 Tref||0.8 Tref|
|Final||0.5 Tref||0.9 Tref|
The throughput standards are set low enough that we expect your allocator will significantly exceed the requirements for Tmax. If you achieve this, it will also insulate you from run-to-run variations caused by system load.
Remember that throughput scores printed by mdriver on a Shark machine are only an indication of your allocator’s performance. Your scores on Autolab are the only scores that count.
7.1.4 Autograded deductions 动态存储分配器代写
The driver.pl program will also run the mdriver-emulate program (see Section 6), which emulates a full 64-bit address space. This may deduct points from your autograded score in the following circumstances:
- If mdriver-emulate fails to run successfully, 30 points will be deducted. This can happen if your code fails to support a full 64-bit address space; for example, if it uses int where a size_t is needed.
- If the utilization of a trace differs between mdriver and mdriver-emulate, 30 points will be deducted.
- If your program uses more than 128 bytes of global data (see the Programming Rules in Section 5), then up to 20 points will be deducted.
7.2 Heap Consistency Checker 动态存储分配器代写
10 points will be awarded based on the quality of your implementation of mm_checkheap. The heap checker will be graded for your checkpoint submission only. It will not be graded in your final submission.
We require that you check all of the invariants of your data structures. Specific items will be dependent on your design, so after making design changes, think about what changes you need to make to your heap checker. Some examples of what your heap checker should check:
- Checking the heap (implicit list, explicit list, segregated list):
– Check for epilogue and prologue blocks.
– Check each block’s address alignment.
– Check blocks lie within heap boundaries.
– Check each block’s header and footer: size (minimum size), previous/next allocate/free bit consistency, header and footer matching each other.
– Check coalescing: no consecutive free blocks in the heap.
- Checking the free list (explicit list, segregated list): 动态存储分配器代写
– All next/previous pointers are consistent (if A’s next pointer points to B, B’s previous pointer should point to A).
– All free list pointers are between mem_heap_lo() and mem_heap_high().
– Count free blocks by iterating through every block and traversing free list by pointers and see if they match.
– All blocks in each list bucket fall within bucket size range (segregated list).
Your heap checker should run silently until it detects some error in the heap. Then, and only then, should it print a message and return false. If it finds no errors, it should return true. It is very important that your heap checker run silently; otherwise, it will produce too much output to be useful on the large traces.
7.3 Style 动态存储分配器代写
4 points will be awarded based on the quality of your code style, following the Style Guidelines on the website at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~213/codeStyle.html. Style will be graded for your final submission only. It will not be graded for your checkpoint submission.
Some points to keep in mind for malloclab in particular:
You must commit your code regularly using Git. This allows you to keep track of your changes, revert to older versions of your code, and regularly remind yourself of what you changed and why you made those changes. For specific guidelines on Git usage, see the style guideline.
Your code should be decomposed into functions and use as few global variables as possible. You should use static functions and declared structs and unions to minimize pointer arithmetic and to isolate it to a few places.
Magic numbers. 动态存储分配器代写
You should avoid sprinkling your code with numeric constants. Instead, use declarations via #define or static constants. Try, as much as possible, to use C data types, and the operators sizeof and offsetof to define the sizes of various fields and offsets, rather than using fixed numericvalues.
Your mm.c file must begin with a header comment that gives an overview of the structure of your free and allocated blocks, the organization of the free list, and how your allocator manipulates the free list.
In addition to the overview header comment, each function must be preceded by a header comment that describes what the function does. Make sure to review the course style guide: we are expecting that for each function, you document at a minimum its purpose, arguments, return value, and any relevant preconditions or postconditions.
Inline comments. 动态存储分配器代写
You will want to use inline comments to explain code flow or code that is tricky.
Your code should be modular, robust, and easily scalable. You should be able to easily change various parameters that define your allocator, without any changes in the actual operation of the program. For example, you should be able to arbitrarily change the number of segregated lists with minimal modifications.
Study the code in mm.c as an example of the desired coding style.
For formatting your code, we require that you use the clang-format tool, which automatically reformats your code according to the .clang-format configuration file. To invoke it, run make format. You are welcome to change the configuration settings to match your desired format. More information is available in the style guideline.
7.4 Handin Instructions
Make sure your code does not print anything during normal operation, and that all debugging macros have been disabled. Ensure that you have committed and pushed the latest version of your code to GitHub.
To submit your code, run make submit or upload your mm.c file to Autolab. Only the last version you submit will be graded.
8 Useful Tips 动态存储分配器代写
You’ll find debugging macros defined in mm.c that provide contractfunctions, such as dbg_assert.
We encourage making liberal use of these contracts to verify invariants and ensure correctness of your code.
Use the drivers’ -c and -f options to run individual traces.
During initial development, using short trace files will simplify debugging and testing.
Use the drivers’ verbose mode.
The -V option will also indicate when each trace file is processed, which will help you isolate errors.
Use gdb to help you debug.
This will help you isolate and identifyout-of-bounds memory references. When debugging, use the mdriver-dbg binary, which is compiled with the -O0 flag to disable optimizations.
Use the Clang static analyzer.
The Clang static analyzer is able to find and pinpoint some bugs and provide explanations for them at compile time. To use it, run make clean and then /usr/local/depot/llvm-7.0/bin/scan-build make and look for errors that it found in your mm.c.
Use gdb’s watch command to find out what changed some value you did not expect to have changed. 动态存储分配器代写
Reduce obscure pointer arithmetic through the use of struct’s and union’s.
Although your data structures will be implemented in compressed form within the heap, you should strive to make them look as conventional as possible using struct and union declarations to encode the different fields. Examples of this style are shown in the baseline implementation.
Encapsulate your pointer operations in functions.
Pointer arithmetic in memory managers is confusing and error-prone because of all the casting that is necessary. You can significantly reduce the complexity by writing functions for your pointer operations. See the code in mm.c for examples. Remember: you are not allowed to define macros—the code in the textbook does not meet our coding standards for this lab.
Your allocator must work for a 64-bit address space.
The mdriver-emulate will specifically test this capability. You should allocate a full eight bytes for all of your pointers and size fields. (You can take advantage of the low-order bits for some of these values being zero due to the alignment requirements.) Make sure you do not inadvertently invoke 32-bit arithmetic with an expression such as 1«32, rather than 1L«32.
9 Office Hours 动态存储分配器代写
This lab has a significant implementation portion that is much more involved than the prior labs. Expect to be debugging issues for several hours — there is no way around this.
TAs will NOT:
- Go line-by-line through your program to determine where things go wrong.
- Read your code to determine if everything you are doing is correct. There are simply too many subtle issues to go through everyone’s programs.
- Help you use GDB efficiently to monitor the state of your program.
- Go through conceptual discussions of what you are doing.
Here are some useful things to have ready before a TA comes to you:
- A non-trivial heap checker that exhaustively tests your implementation.
- Documentation of your data structures (drawings are great!)
- A detailed description of problems you are experiencing, and what you’ve looked into so far (not “my malloc doesn’t work and I don’t know why”)
As a reminder, check our office hours schedule on the course website. Start early so you can get help early!
10 Strategic Advice 动态存储分配器代写
You must design algorithms and data structures for managing free blocks that achieve the right balance of space utilization and speed. This involves a trade-off—it is easy to write a fast allocator by allocating blocks and never freeing them, or a high-utilization allocator that carefully packs blocks as tightly as possible. You must seek to minimize wasted space while also making your program run fast.
As described in the textbook and the lectures, utilization is reduced below 100% due to fragmentation, taking two different forms:
- External fragmentation: Unused space between allocated blocks or at the end of the heap
- Internal fragmentation: Space within an allocated block that cannot be used for storing data, because it is required for some of the manager’s data structures (e.g., headers, footers, and free-list pointers), or because extra bytes must be allocated to meet alignment or minimum block size requirements
To reduce external fragmentation, you will want to implement good block placement heuristics. To reduce internal fragmentation, it helps to reduce the storage for your data structures as much as possible.
Maximizing throughput requires making sure your allocator finds a suitable block quickly. This involves constructing more elaborate data structures than is found in the provided code. However, your code need not use any exotic data structures, such as search trees. Our reference implementation only uses singly- and doubly-linked lists.
Here’s a strategy we suggest you follow in meeting the checkpoint and final version requirements: 动态存储分配器代写
The provided code already meets the required utilization performance4, but it has very low throughput. You can achieve the required throughput by converting to an explicit-list allocator, and then converting that into a segregated free list allocator. Both of these changes will not affect your utilization much.
You will want to experiment with allocation policies. The provided code implements first-fit search. Some allocators attempt best-fit search, but this is difficult to do efficiently. You can find ways to introduce elements of best-fit search into a first-fit allocator, while keeping the amount of search bounded.
Depending on whether you place newly freed blocks at the beginning or the end of a free list, you can implement either a last-in-first-out (LIFO) or a first-in-first-out (FIFO) queue discipline. You should experiment with both.
Final Version. 动态存储分配器代写
Building on the checkpoint version, you must greatly increase the utilization and keep a high throughput. You must reduce both external and internal fragmentation. Reducing external fragmentation requires achieving something closer to best-fit allocation. Reducing internal fragmentation requires reducing data structure overhead. There are multiple ways to do this, each with its own challenges. Possible approaches and their associated challenges include:
– Eliminate footers in allocated blocks. But, you still need to be able to implement coalescing. See the discussion about this optimization on page 852 of the textbook.
– Decrease the minimum block size. But, you must then manage free blocks that are too small to hold the pointers for a doubly linked free list.
– Set up special regions of memory for small, fixed-size blocks. But, you will need to manage these and be able to free a block when given only the starting address of its payload.
4 The baseline code meets the required utilization for the checkpoint given a basic implementation of coalesce_block. However, you will need to implement coalescing yourself.
See Appendix A.1 for approximate expected quantitative results from these optimizations.
Some advice on how to implement and debug your packages will be covered in the lectures and recitations, as well as the Malloc Lab Bootcamp.
A Performance Evaluation
A.1 Approximate Expected Results from Optimizations
A.2 Machine Dependencies
You will find that your program gets different throughput values depending on the model of CPU for the machine running the program. Our evaluation code compensates for these differences by comparing the performance of your program to implementations we have written for both the checkpoint and the final versions. It can determine the reference performance for the machine executing the program in two different ways. First, it looks in the file throughputs.txt to see if it has a record for the executing CPU. (Linux
machines contain a file /proc/cpuinfo that includes information about the CPU model.) Second, if it does not find this information, it runs reference implementations that are included as part of the provided files.
Throughput information has been generated for the CPUs in the Shark machines, as well as the CPU model used by the Autolab servers, which we refer to as “Autolab C”. The different CPU types used are:
|Shark||Intel(R)Xeon(R)[email protected]||Intel Xeon||E5520||2.27|
|Autolab C||Intel(R)Xeon(R)[email protected]
|Intel Xeon||Gold 6132||2.60|
When mdriver runs, it will print out the CPU model ID (a compressed version of the information in /proc/cpuinfo) and the benchmark throughput for that CPU model.
A.3 Performance Points
Observing that both memory and CPU cycles are expensive system resources, we combine these two measures into a single performance index P, with 0 ≤ P ≤ 100, computed as a weighted sum of the space utilization and throughput:
B Viewing Heap Contents with GDB 动态存储分配器代写
The debugging program gdb can be a valuable tool for tracking down bugs in your memory allocator. We hope by this point in the course that you are familiar with many of the features of gdb. You will want to take full advantage of them.
Unfortunately, normal gdb commands cannot be used to examine the heap when running mdriver-emulate. In this appendix, we present a brief tutorial on using gdb with your program and describe a helper function that can be used to examine the heap with gdb for both mdriver and mdriver-emulate. In this tutorial, we use the code in mm.c as the reference implementation.
B.1 Viewing the heap without a helper function
A typical gdb session to examine the header of a block on a call to free might go something like this. In the following, all text in italics was typed by the user. The session has been edited to remove some uninteresting parts of the printout.
linux> gdb mdriver (gdb) break mm_free Breakpoint 1 at 0x4043a1: file mm.c, line 288. (gdb) run -c traces/syn-array-short.rep Breakpoint 1, mm_free ([email protected]=0x80000eac0) at mm.c:288 (gdb) print bp $1 = (void *) 0x80000eac0 (gdb) print /x *((unsigned long *) bp - 1) $2 = 0x41a1 (gdb) quit
A few things about this session are worth noting: 动态存储分配器代写
- The function named “free” in mm.c is known to gdb in its unaliased form as “mm_free.” You can see that the aliasing is introducted through a macro definition at the beginning of the file. When you use gdb, you refer to the unaliased function names. The unaliased names of other important functions in mm.c include: mm_malloc, mm_realloc, mm_calloc, mem_memset, andmem_memcpy.
- The gdb command “print /x *((unsigned long *) bp – 1)” first casts the argument to free to be a pointer to an unsigned long. It then decrements this pointer to point to the block header and then prints it in hex format.
- The printed value 0x41a1 indicates that the block is of size 0x41a0 (decimal 16,800), and the lowerorder bit is set to indicate that the block is allocated. Looking at the trace file, you will see that the block to be freed has a payload of 16,784 bytes. This required allocating a block of size 16,800 to hold the header, payload, and footer.
When we try the same method with mdriver-emulate, things don’t work as well. In this case, we use one of the traces with giant allocations, but the same problem will be encountered with any of the traces.
linux> gdb mdriver-emulate (gdb) break mm_free Breakpoint 1 at 0x4043b7: file mm.c, line 285. (gdb) run -c traces/syn-giantarray-short.rep Breakpoint 1, mm_free ([email protected]=0x23368bd380eb2cb0) at mm.c:285 (gdb) print bp $1 = (void *) 0x23368bd380eb2cb0 (gdb) print /x *((unsigned long *) bp - 1) Cannot access memory at address 0x23368bd380eb2ca8 (gdb) quit
The problem is that bp is set to 0x23368bd380eb2cb0, or around 2.54 × 1018, which is well beyond the range of virtual addresses supported by the machine. The mdriver-emulate program uses sparse memory techniques to provide the illusion of a full, 64-bit address space, and so it supports very large pointer values.
However, the actual addressing has an overall limit of 100 MB of actual memory usage.
B.2 Viewing the heap with the hprobe helper function 动态存储分配器代写
To support the use of gdb in debugging both the normal and the emulated version of the memory, we have created a function with the following prototype:
void hprobe(void *ptr, int offset, size_t count);
This function will print the count bytes that start at the address given by summing ptr and offset. Having a separate offset argument eliminates the need for doing pointer arithmetic in your queury.
Here’s an example of using hprobe with mdriver:
linux> gdb mdriver (gdb) break mm_free Breakpoint 1 at 0x4043a1: file mm.c, line 288. (gdb) run -c traces/syn-array-short.rep Breakpoint 1, mm_free ([email protected]=0x80000eac0) at mm.c:288 (gdb) print bp $1 = (void *) 0x80000eac0 (gdb) print hprobe(bp, -8, 8) Bytes 0x80000eabf...0x80000eab8: 0x00000000000041a1 (gdb) quit
Observe that hprobe is called with the argument to free as the pointer, an offset of −8 and a count of 8. The function prints the bytes with the most significant byte on the left, just as for normal printing of numeric values. The range of addresses is shown as HighAddr…LowAddr. We can see that the printed value is identical to what was printed using pointer arithmetic, but with leading zeros added.
The same command sequence works for mdriver-emulate: 动态存储分配器代写
linux> gdb mdriver-emulate (gdb) break mm_free Breakpoint 1 at 0x4043b7: file mm.c, line 285. (gdb) run -c traces/syn-giantarray-short.rep Breakpoint 1, mm_free ([email protected]=0x23368bd380eb2cb0) at mm.c:285 (gdb) print bp $1 = (void *) 0x23368bd380eb2cb0 (gdb) print hprobe(bp, -8, 8) Bytes 0x23368bd380eb2caf...0x23368bd380eb2ca8: 0x00eb55b00c8f1ed1 (gdb) quit
The contents of the header indicate a block size of 0xeb55b00c8f1ed0 (decimal 66,240,834,140,315,344), with the low-order bit set to indicate that the block is allocated. Looking at the trace, we see that the block to be freed has a payload of 66,240,834,160,315,328 bytes. Sixteen additional bytes were required for the header and the footer.
Part of being a productive programmer is to make use of the tools available. Many novice programmers fill their code with print statements. While that can be a useful approach, it is often more efficient to use debuggers, such as gdb. With the hprobe helper function, you can use gdb on both versions of the driver program.