Democracy and Civil Societies
代写Essay机构 Ethno-cultural superiority, differentiating the other through duality and aggression marked the advent of colonialists.
Frantz Fanon argued that anti-colonial violence can bring forward a new and better society. Was he right?
European colonizers used several strategies to achieve domination and oppress the colonized states. Violence was perpetrated in many forms to subjugate the native to the will of the foreigner (Sartre 1963). Ethno-cultural superiority, differentiating the other through duality and aggression marked the advent of colonialists. Physical, psychological, spiritual and emotional violent fronts were employed to seize and control the economic resources.
The foreigner controlled the culture and excluded the native people from accumulating and accessing any political, cultural and economic power. Generally, in the recourse of such oppression resolve to violent confrontations have been legitimized. Many civilized nations of the global West have supported the Ukrainian armed conflict against Russian invasion considering the rights, equality and justice causes. The Marxist ideologies have also approved the use of violence to reject subjugation by political authorities. It legitimizes the approach of revolutionary movements that act as midwives of history whereby outdated social systems are overthrown by higher societal demands (Kebede 2001). The paper will support Frantz Fanon’s justification of anti-colonial violence for creation of a better society defined by Marxists as classless and stateless.
Justification of Anti-colonial violence
Frantz Fanon held in his works, ‘The Wretched of the Earth (1961) that decolonisation is only achievable through violence. He provided a legitimation of aggression in response to colonialism. Earlier forms of conquest in the past centuries were quite different from the intents of colonisation. Unlike the total subjugation and domination of the societies by stronger regimes of the past, colonialists presented a threat of cultural extinction of the colonized communities. Fighting the colonial masters is a paramount activity whose aims surpass the mere removal of a rotten social system and self-defense. It is a fight for the survival of a native civilization that is otherwise threatened by the violence of the oppressor (Hansen 1997). 代写Essay机构
The scholar describes the actions taken to put in order the colonial regime to deprive the indigenous people the societal fabric.
He exposes the atrocities performed to destroy the native social forms, systems of reference to the economy, local customs and all forms of life. Fanon argues that the same pattern will be needed by the colonized people to reclaim the history. Anti-colonial violence was thus perpetrated by the break-up, abolition and expulsion of the colonial agents from the country. The author argues that the process of decolonization should involve the same magnitude of aggression used by the whites to affirm and permeate in the colonial territory. In revenge, the locals ought to mock, insult and vomit up at the mention of the white-supremacy norms. Therefore, Fanon considers the physical and cultural expulsion of the colonialists from the geographical and social spheres of the natives.
The justification for anti-colonial violence is framed by Fanon by contextualizing the atrocities committed during colonialism.
He held that colonisation is characterized by violent encounters between the settler and native population forces. European states imposed domination on the global south for the sole purpose of exploiting the natural resources of the colonised areas. To fulfil the purpose, Fanon identifies a range of violations done on the local societies. Using the case of French colonisation of Algeria, the author draws the rational points that justify a revenge mission of restoring the pre-colonial native social system.
Fanon defines the concept of a new and better society by referring to the return of the colonized countries to the historical traditions enjoyed before the European colonisation. He points out the conventional economic, social systems and cultural practices of the natives. Therefore, the paper will discuss why the author is justified in proposing the use of violence against the colonial systems to regain the human rights, equality and justice.
Human rights 代写Essay机构
Violence is the primary mechanism of the revolution that can bring about freedom according to Fanon. The author’s conception of liberty refers to preservation of the dignity of the native man. Accordingly, it is justifiable to use violent means to rise against degradation and oppression to attain the rights as concrete human beings (Hansen 1997). The revolutionist’s ideals on the use of anti-colonial violence to achieve a new better society can be argued to stem from the Marxist humanist ideas of freedom.
Violent mechanisms are paramount in the reclamation of the notion of alienation of man to pursue individualism.According to the author, the European colonialists exacerbated untold suffering and dehumanisation campaigns against the colonized masses. It was aimed at assimilating the natives into foreign culture. The foreigners used the power of a military and police wielding guns and machines to subdue and dominate the autochthonous. Fanon describes the grim realities of original colonial contexts where utter infringement of the rights of the locals was committed. It is therefore only possible to root out the system using the same mechanics upon which colonialism was established.
The Manichean world of duality created by the settlers cannot be defeated in a non-violent perspective but needs an aggressive ideological uprooting.
To achieve the goal, the natives must possess the military and war machinery to defend such moves. Fanon described the mechanism author was a tool that furthered exploitation of the global south countries. It is imperative that such models of domination are only eliminated using revolutions. 代写Essay机构
The White colonialists created a framework that painted the painted the native as a sort of quintessence of evil and inferiority. It was implemented to weaken the essence of nativity and create admiration of the white superiority in order to prolong the domination of social, cultural and psychological aspects (Babou 2010). Such methods are regarded as violence and aggression against the pre-colonial human rights of native people.
The totalitarian character of the colonists disregarded the traditional values of the colonial world denying the rights to practice pre-colonial norms.
Instead, it negated everything that meant good to the local communities using derogative perspectives. Such practices had intense emotional and social ramifications that affected the locals for centuries and generations. The norms of the people were declared as insensible, evil and enmity to all things.
Long-held social forms of the pre-colonial times were negated as a disdain that disfigure any morality or beauty that existed. It was considered the blinding force of evil that would corrupt the ‘new’ colonized society. For example in Algeria, the traditions, myths and norms of local people were considered as the poison and disease that constituted depravity. Forced assimilation was practised to demean the people. For instance, the forceful language and naming of natives had lasting implications on the freedoms of living normally as humans.
Some people were barred from using the ancient family names and branded dehumanizing titles to torment the personal, local, cultural and racial identity.
For instance, the Christian church of the white people was imposed on the communities through evangelization advances. Zoological terms were used to put the native people on the same level of beasts like goats, cattle, donkey and sheep. Franton’s The Wretched of the Earth (1961) highlights the bestiary terms used to derogate Algerians like ‘of yellow man’s reptilian moves’, ‘foulness’, ‘breeding swarms’ and ‘gesticulations.’ 代写Essay机构
Such a colonialist vocabulary made allusion to the animal world when referring to colonised masses.It caused immense pain to the natives that seemed as children of nobody and distended bodies that likened to nought on earth. However, the residents overcome the degradation with a laughter knowing that they are not animals but humans (Sartre 1963). At the moment, the native prepares the weapons for restoring the right to be given the freedom or be isolated to pursue individualist perspective of life. The desire to regain the sense of self-hood in the colonized country is a precursor to further reactionary violent response from the oppressor. At this point, Fanon argues that violence of the natives is paramount to unleashing a revolution that will redeem their rights for self-determination.
Many critics have lashed out at Frantz Fanon as a glorifier of violence and a promoter of hope.
It can be argued that the critical position arises from a misunderstanding of the conception of anti-colonial violent action by the author. For instance, the use of force in the colonialism context is a means of achieving liberty and not the ends of the societal state. Most critics fail to realize the humanist aspect of Fanon’s concept and are unable to relate the desires of freedom and the processes of revolution.
For instance, Ted Honderich ignores the pursuit of freedom as a weak and less interesting defense of anti-colonial violence (Fashina 1989). On the other hand Kai Nielsen considers the regenerative aspect of aggression but ignores its means to achieve the desired ends of the oppressed. Many scholars of political violence consider the notions of writers like Marx, Sartre and Sorel but ignore the position of Fanon. Such sentiments emanate from authors holding a one-sided view of colonisation. However, the imperative for equality is paramount for supporting a violent revolution against colonialists. Hack (2012, p.137) pointed out that violent confrontations expedited decolonization in the South East Asia against Japanese dominance.
Fanon argues that colonialism is naked violence that can only submit to greater ferocity. In the context of colonisation, a desire among the oppressed to obtain equal treatment triggers a violent subjugation from the power of the colonialist. Colonial systems use the power of the police and military to perpetrate unequal access to economic resources and deprive the local community. It sets up capitalist structure that lays out institutional structures like education, banking, health and civil service in favour of the foreigner and his cronies. Such frameworks create an order that serves the generations of the bourgeois and guarantees the inhibition and submission of the exploited native.
However, the wheels of revolution are rolled when the colonized desires to better the situation to earn similar life chances accessible to the colonizer.
Since the colonial system does not exist to serve the colonized, two approaches can be pursued to achieve the goals of economic and civil equality (Sartre 1963). A violent or a peaceful revolution is the alternatives employed in the global south. It implies that either the country will obtain self-rule without a violent conflict. The physical exit of the coloniser from the geographical context will not however imply the departure of colonialism. For instance, the elites that replace the colonialist state occupy the same power and culture of the former oppressors. Consequently, the freedom-driven natives with the intellectuals will discover the malice of the new ruling class and form a new movement for achieving concrete freedom and equality. It will create a new form of confrontation. 代写Essay机构
The build-up of the resistance to pro-colonial rule will return to the villages to mobilize the native people. Upon realization of the depravity and degradation caused by the colonialism, individuals that are ready to fight against the enemy will join the movement. The mobilization beings with the peasants and extends to the tribes before gaining momentum and significance in cities.
The discontent spreads from the Lumpen proletariat to everywhere in the former colony.
Guided by the intellectuals, all members of the oppressed citizenry will participate in the revolution as observed in most of the African colonies. Even though all groups were active in the activities, the process was decentralized. Nevertheless, a violent confrontation arises from the unwillingness of the regime to equalize the colonized and the colonizer. Therefore, the authorities will unleash an aggressive policing or military force that will meet the revolutionists with great suffering. It will either subjugate the native people or trigger a greater violence. 代写Essay机构
The aggressive response of the colonial authorities to local demands for equality must be met with an equally powerful force to achieve the goals (Shaheryar 2020). It is essential that intellectuals among the native get a stronger resolve to mount a more violent confrontation. The failure will lead to continued deprivation hence failure of the self-determination forces. An example of the incident was the continued subjugation of South Africa due to lack of a greater resistance to equalize the oppressor. In such a case, the failed attempts will guide the indigenous communities to see things differently and adopt new paths to obtain justice.
According to Frantz Fanon, anti-colonial violence is the only way to achieve decolonisation and establish a better society. The failure of pockets of violent confrontations to root out the colonial master leads to new fronts that seek to obtain justice for the oppressed. It causes the formerly comfortable natives and pro-colonialists to see things differently. The enslaved people will begin to take on new targets of physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual violence (Shaheryar 2020). 代写Essay机构
A series of guerrilla attacks on defense forces, important infrastructure and missions will be undertaken. For the case where the colonialists were replaced by pro-colonial elites, insurgency is likely to negate all things associated with the foreign culture and values of the ruling class. Using the strategies of the former colonial regime, the authorities will aim to supress the opposition elements in the former colony. The efforts will continue to create pockets of violence pitting the government against masses.
Confrontations will begin within the government arms as more slaves adopt the anti-colonial views.
Resistance will continue even though the elites will attempt to imprison the masses in many vicious ways. Some colonial regimes and pro-colonial system tortured natives through tactics like deprivation of basic needs and police harassment to keep the society in darkness. Violence of the oppressed will be necessary to direct the masses towards the truth about the evils of colonialists and their heirs. It will help to build the unity of the colonized to amass sufficient force to confront the oppressor.代写Essay机构
Most of the revolutionaries in the colonies operated like gangs of insurgents and terrorists for long time before turning the tide against the colonial governments. For instance, the Great Britain granted independence to West African colonies earlier than East and Central Africans due to partly the intensity of violence. It can be argued that limited amount of violence allowed settler communities that made decolonization difficult due to increased foreign interests in the colony.
Examples include British delays in Kenya and the prolonged French warring against the Algerian independence forces from 1954 to 1962. On the contrary, the West African colonies had more powerful movements that spearheaded independence compared to the Central and East African peers. New and better societies have been established in the west and north of the continent compared to the southern and eastern frontiers (McAlexander 2020).
In conclusion, the paper has justified Frantz Fanon’s argument that anti-colonial violence can bring forward a new and better society. The oppressed communities need to mount a greater opposition against the colonial power. It can be physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual aggression on the coloniser to reclaim the basic rights, equality and justice. African states that presented more violence earned self-rule earlier than the ones that had limited confrontations.
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