Big Question: How Do We Use Networks And Digital Technologies To Alter Our Everyday Experiences And Social Relationships?
Big Question: How Do We Use Networks and Digital Technologies to Alter Our Everyday Experiences and Social Relationships?
人文社科论文代写 In our now mostly virtual world, people have many options for making communications with one another. Text messages, video calls, and ···
What Is the Impact of Facebook on Social Interactions and Relationship?
In our now mostly virtual world, people have many options for making communications with one another. Text messages, video calls, and social platforms are the most popular methods people use to establish contacts. Undoubtedly, people yearn and desire for connections and belonging in society. The social support that comes with different modern ways of communication has been linked to positive mental health. Some argue the negative emotional impact of loneliness.
Uchino and Eisenberger (2019) noted that people who do not have enough or lack social relationships are prevalent to early death than those who have more social engagements. In both perspectives, according to Lepore (2014) Facebook as a social media is a disruptive technology in the modern world. Yet with the explosion of social media, many people are concern that users appear to substitute virtual, online connections for real-life, social connections and hence have an impact on their social interactions and relationships.
Facebook 对社交互动和关系有何影响？ 人文社科论文代写
Uchino 和 Eisenberger (2019) 指出，与社交活动较多的人相比，社交关系不足或缺乏社交关系的人更容易早逝。 Lepore (2014) 认为，从这两个角度来看，Facebook 作为一种社交媒体在现代世界是一种颠覆性技术。然而，随着社交媒体的爆炸式增长，许多人担心用户似乎用虚拟的在线联系代替了现实生活中的社交联系，从而对他们的社交互动和关系产生了影响。
Facebook and Social Interactions and Relationships
In the context of Lepore (2014), Facebook is without doubts the largest and the most popular social interruption in the world. It plays a critical role in creating connections between people from different parts so the world and cultures. Facebook users have the luxury of ease of keeping in touch with peers. Other people find Facebook as the site to combat loneliness.
Through it, users can have significant footprints of time and places, archived for them, and make them available for people to view. Statistics show that Facebook has more than 2.4 billion monthly active users and more than 1.5 billion daily active users (Richter, 2019). Tremendously Facebook is becoming an integral part of society. It is, therefore, imperative to have a better understanding from the perspective of media and technology use, the impact it has on the people particularly at the levels of social interactions.
Facebook 和社交互动和关系 人文社科论文代写
在 Lepore (2014) 的背景下，Facebook 无疑是世界上最大和最受欢迎的社交中断。 它在建立来自不同地区的人们以及世界和文化之间的联系方面发挥着关键作用。 Facebook 用户可以轻松地与同龄人保持联系。 其他人则认为 Facebook 是对抗孤独的网站。
通过它，用户可以拥有重要的时间和地点足迹，为他们存档，并提供给人们查看。 统计数据显示，Facebook 的月活跃用户超过 24 亿，日活跃用户超过 15 亿（Richter，2019）。 Facebook正在成为社会不可或缺的一部分。 因此，必须从媒体和技术使用的角度更好地理解它对人们的影响，尤其是在社会互动层面。
Image showing Facebook users and internet users. Source: https://www.statista.com/chart/10047/facebooks-monthly-active-users/
Facebook and its impact on social interactions can be explained using both behavioral and psychological theory (Qi, Monod, Fang, & Deng, 2018). Social interaction is a form of behavior change where social media plays a role in its modification (Park, Sung, & Im, 2017). Behavior is an occurrence of the influence of environmental events. The behavior change depends on the context of an online connection.
Mobile technologies and the internet mediate face-to-face interactions. The interaction between friends and family has dramatically changed as people get more connected to their personal computers and increasingly use computer-mediated communication. A scenario can occur in a modern family where the father may be busy watching the news on television, the mother is fiddling with the phone, the son is busy playing with the game console, and the daughter is silent with her latest mobile phone app. Everyone in the room is looking at some screen. In this case, making online communication is more frequent and hence create more mutual relationships.
Facebook 及其对社交互动的影响可以用行为和心理学理论来解释（Qi、Monod、Fang 和 Deng，2018 年）。社交互动是一种行为改变形式，社交媒体在其中发挥作用（Park、Sung 和 Im，2017 年）。行为是环境事件影响的发生。行为变化取决于在线连接的上下文。
Image showing theories that explain social media behavior. Source: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Does-Social-Media-Use-Influence-Entrepreneurial-A-Park-Sung/eea2744448310a65d06811b0eb472944ea5bf3d6
Facebook uses the mechanism of new friends rather than close friends to create social interactions. Thus, users behave differently depending on who they are interacting with, the connection between them, and among other scenarios (Park, Sung, & Im, 2017). Also, people use Facebook to make contact with distant social circles and utilize face-to-face communication with close social circles.
People log in to Facebook to forge long-distance interpersonal relationships. The shift has been associated with the advantage of increased well-being and connectedness among Facebook users. However, there are reduced levels of one-on-one contact, and people are becoming more and more lonely and depressed as the interaction between friends and family reduces. It is an apparent indication that online interaction influences social behavior and hence influenced the social life structure.
Facebook 使用新朋友而不是亲密朋友的机制来创建社交互动。 因此，用户的行为取决于他们与谁交互、他们之间的联系以及其他场景（Park、Sung 和 Im，2017 年）。 此外，人们使用 Facebook 与遥远的社交圈取得联系，并利用与亲密社交圈的面对面交流。
人们登录 Facebook 以建立异地人际关系。 这种转变与 Facebook 用户之间的幸福感和联系增加的优势有关。 然而，一对一接触的水平降低了，随着朋友和家人之间的互动减少，人们变得越来越孤独和沮丧。 这明显表明在线互动会影响社会行为，从而影响社会生活结构。
On the other hand.
The psychological theory is used to explain the drivers of Facebook use that include feeling of belonging and self-presentation (Park, Sung, & Im, 2017). Though there are opposing views on the implication of Facebook to social relationships and psychological well-being, they all converge to general agreement that it has impact on user’s cognitive and behavior (Hu, Kim, Siwek, & Wilder, 2017).
On one end are people who claim that Facebook use is positively correlated with young people’s life satisfaction, social and civil trust as well as participation in politics. These social benefits are associated with three social capitals, including bonding, bridging, and maintenance. The capability of status update and making responses and comments is one form of reducing loneliness and increasing connectedness among the users. These findings portray that Facebooking positive relationship with social-psychological benefits that are useful in fostering social relationships and psychological well-being.
心理学理论用于解释 Facebook 使用的驱动因素，包括归属感和自我展示（Park、Sung 和 Im，2017）。尽管对于 Facebook 对社会关系和心理健康的影响存在不同的观点，但他们都一致认为 Facebook 对用户的认知和行为有影响（Hu、Kim、Siwek 和 Wilder，2017 年）。
一方面，有人声称使用 Facebook 与年轻人的生活满意度、社会和公民信任以及政治参与呈正相关。这些社会福利与三个社会资本有关，包括联系、桥接和维护。状态更新和回复和评论的能力是减少用户之间的孤独和增加联系的一种形式。这些发现描述了 Facebook 与社交心理益处之间的积极关系，这些益处有助于培养社交关系和心理健康。
However, some associate Facebooking to psychological and sociological destruction.
The number of friends one has on Facebook has negatively correlated to the self-image, positively correlated jealousy and dissatisfaction in relationships, and in long-term related to lower cognition. Facebook is associated with the development of enviousness especially people’s past experiences so that they have attracted appealing online persona. In this case, envy becomes a mediating factor between Facebook surveillance and depression and hence has hidden life dissatisfaction. Generally, Facebook use is paradoxical in that is can cause harm and at the same time, enhance the user’s social interactions and psychological health.
一个人在 Facebook 上的朋友数量与自我形象呈负相关，对人际关系的嫉妒和不满呈正相关，长期与较低的认知相关。 Facebook 与嫉妒的发展有关，尤其是人们过去的经历，因此他们吸引了有吸引力的在线角色。 在这种情况下，嫉妒成为了 Facebook 监控和抑郁之间的中介因素，从而隐藏了对生活的不满。 一般来说，Facebook 的使用是矛盾的，因为它可能会造成伤害，同时会增强用户的社交互动和心理健康。
Typically, couples have the autonomy of choosing how to express their relationships in public. Facebook has changed how partners communicate their relationships. People indeed tend to show their best face forward while creating online bonds. It is a way of portraying emotional insecurity, weaknesses, and conflicts intended to veil true self behind social site miniatures. As such, couples tend only to show the good side and leave the wrong side. That is, they only post pictures of when they are happy but not when they are not displeased by each other. Thus, they use it to romanticize their relationship and experiences in public. The presentation of a picture of one’s partner is a way of showing trust and help foster a stronger bond between the couple.
However, couples must learn to create balance in competing for the discourse of opposing forces that simultaneously want to bring them together and those that want to tear them apart. Relational Dialect Theory can be used to explain the media and romantic relationship. Romantic couples struggle between inclusion and exclusion in Facebook, particularly when trying to define the boundaries between them and public Facebook users. When too much is shared on social media, it tends to take away the intimacy of the couple. On the other hand, when too little is shared, the authenticity of the relationship becomes questionable. Thus, not every aspect of the relationship should be shared. The couple should always establish a balance for effective experience.
通常情况下，夫妻可以自主选择如何在公共场合表达他们的关系。 Facebook 改变了合作伙伴沟通关系的方式。人们确实倾向于在建立在线联系时表现出最好的一面。这是一种描绘情感不安全、弱点和冲突的方式，旨在用社交网站缩影掩盖真实的自我。因此，夫妻往往只展示好的一面，而留下不好的一面。也就是说，他们只张贴他们开心时的照片，而不张贴彼此不不满时的照片。因此，他们用它来浪漫化他们在公共场合的关系和经历。展示伴侣的照片是一种表达信任的方式，有助于在夫妻之间建立更牢固的联系。
然而，夫妻必须学会在竞争对立力量的话语中创造平衡，这些力量既想把他们聚集在一起，又想把他们分开。关系方言理论可以用来解释媒体和浪漫的关系。浪漫情侣在 Facebook 的包容和排斥之间挣扎，尤其是在试图界定他们与 Facebook 公共用户之间的界限时。当在社交媒体上分享太多内容时，往往会剥夺这对夫妇的亲密关系。另一方面，当共享太少时，这种关系的真实性就变得值得怀疑。因此，并不是关系的每个方面都应该共享。这对夫妇应该始终建立有效体验的平衡。
Security and Privacy Issues with Facebook
Privacy issues and identity theft is a common phenomenon in the modern digital era. According to Crawford (2014), internet and other digital technologies have created pools of data about technology users that it has culminated in big data anxiety. Today, governments are spying and collecting data about internet users especially social media where Facebook and YouTube are the primary targets. According to Crawford (2014) big data is the collection of data sets that are extremely large that by the use of modern computational capabilities, it can reveal patterns, trends, and associations in human behavior and interactions. People are beginning to worry about too much data that gets leaked to the hands of companies, individuals, and government.
Facebook 的安全和隐私问题 人文社科论文代写
隐私问题和身份盗窃是现代数字时代的普遍现象。 根据 Crawford (2014) 的说法，互联网和其他数字技术创造了关于技术用户的数据池，最终导致大数据焦虑。 今天，政府正在监视和收集有关互联网用户的数据，尤其是 Facebook 和 YouTube 是主要目标的社交媒体。 根据 Crawford (2014) 的说法，大数据是极大数据集的集合，通过使用现代计算能力，它可以揭示人类行为和交互中的模式、趋势和关联。 人们开始担心太多数据会泄露到公司、个人和政府手中。
Image showing the interconnection between internet users and their identity activities that constitute big data. Source: https://thenewinquiry.com/the-anxieties-of-big-data/
The picture shows various types of data from users. Source: https://thenewinquiry.com/the-anxieties-of-big-data/
Ho (2018) reported that Facebook users have the fear that they might be giving too much information that might be used to reveal ultimate selves.
The exponential rate at which big data is growing is worrying that it will reach a point that the data will not only give the representation about the users but also misrepresent the users. Crawford (2014) noted that it is a myth to say the more data collected about people, the more life gets better and reflect the accurate and truth about human behavior. It is the same reason that large corporations are partnering with governments and data collectors for massive data gathering for their advantage (Boyd & Crawford, 2012). Though consumers know about this and fear it, they do not talk about it. Thus, the fear of big data is hindering people from experiencing the full potential of the internet and social media because no one knows who is watching.
Therefore, because of this fear people are developing distrust in technologies. Online information has become less and less reliable in whatever form they appear because of inherent fear is being perpetuated by data surveillance. Facebook, in particular, is the most vulnerable and target of hackers and foreign powers. People are already experiencing that their data and profiles are no longer safe and private. A recent privacy breach at Facebook left many users more than worried. The company confirmed that there were millions of unencrypted Instagram passwords, user ID and phone numbers that were stored in plain texts allowing hackers to access (Winder, 2019). It was later revealed that it was part of the syndicate through which Facebook shares user data to third parties for the creation of customized and targeted adverts. It was one of the data breach incidents that Facebook users become wary.
HO (2018) 报告说，FACEBOOK 用户担心他们可能会提供过多可能用于揭示终极自我的信息。 人文社科论文代写
大数据以指数级增长的速度令人担忧，它会达到这样的程度，即数据不仅会代表用户，还会歪曲用户。 Crawford (2014) 指出，说收集的关于人的数据越多，生活越美好，反映人类行为的准确和真实，这是一个神话。这也是大公司与政府和数据收集者合作收集大量数据以获取优势的相同原因（Boyd & Crawford，2012）。尽管消费者知道这一点并害怕它，但他们不会谈论它。因此，对大数据的恐惧阻碍了人们体验互联网和社交媒体的全部潜力，因为没有人知道谁在看。
因此，由于这种恐惧，人们对技术产生了不信任。在线信息无论以何种形式出现，都变得越来越不可靠，因为数据监视使人们固有的恐惧感持续存在。尤其是 Facebook，是黑客和外国势力最容易受到攻击和攻击的目标。人们已经体验到他们的数据和个人资料不再安全和私密。 Facebook 最近发生的隐私泄露事件让许多用户感到非常担忧。该公司证实，有数百万个未加密的 Instagram 密码、用户 ID 和电话号码以纯文本形式存储，允许黑客访问（Winder，2019 年）。后来透露，它是 Facebook 与第三方共享用户数据以创建定制和有针对性的广告的辛迪加的一部分。这是 Facebook 用户变得警惕的数据泄露事件之一。
According to Kirchner (2015), people are increasingly becoming more worried about automation and artificial intelligence due to existence of convoluted algorithms. These technologies are being used to crawl underneath Facebook sites and other internet technologies, gathering data on user activities, analyzing and use the results together with algorithms to predict how users navigate the website. Facebook is slowly turning to AI-assisted social platform and is increasingly becoming smarter by harnessing user data. It is being used as the most cost-effective yet powerful tool that helps companies better reach and engage with customers, increase brand awareness, and foster loyalty. The big data collected give marketers an avalanche of unstructured data that they use to manipulate consumer behavior through Facebook.
根据 Kirchner (2015) 的说法，由于复杂算法的存在，人们越来越担心自动化和人工智能。 这些技术被用于在 Facebook 网站和其他互联网技术下爬行，收集用户活动数据，分析和使用结果以及算法来预测用户如何浏览网站。 Facebook 正在慢慢转向人工智能辅助社交平台，并通过利用用户数据变得越来越智能。 它被用作最具成本效益但功能最强大的工具，可帮助公司更好地接触和吸引客户、提高品牌知名度并培养忠诚度。 收集到的大数据为营销人员提供了大量非结构化数据，他们用来通过 Facebook 操纵消费者行为。
AI is a subset of deep learning and machine learning that utilizes big data analytics to get solutions in real-time. Facebook acquires Bloomsbury AI so that is can combat fake news and inappropriate content that was prevalent in the platform. The technology is based on natural language processing and help machines to answer questions based on information gleaned from the posts, pictures, and documents. The technology is a solution to moderation problems of the existence of uncontrolled details that may not be appropriate to the general public.
It also set to limit the freedom that Facebook users ought to but if not censored detrimental to primary goal of the platform. Users are not able to post or send nudity, violent or obscene images, and documents. Users are also able to report on the inappropriateness of particular posts, which, if true are brought down. Besides, users are given some discretion to see some images which the technology considers violent or obscene. However, though it is an excellent advancement in creating better customer experiences in social media the data collected is used to create digital trails on the internet that most users do not approve of.
Facebook has created and will continue to have an impact on social interactions and relationships.
The divergent views in the extremes of negatives and positives influences of Facebook as a social platform all converge to agree that just like any other behavior changing factors, it has an impact on user’s life both cognitively and behaviorally. As such, moderation is the key to creating balance on the impact it has on people’s social interactions and relationships.
AI 是深度学习和机器学习的一个子集，它利用大数据分析实时获取解决方案。 Facebook 收购了 Bloomsbury AI，以便可以打击平台中普遍存在的虚假新闻和不当内容。该技术基于自然语言处理，帮助机器根据从帖子、图片和文档中收集的信息回答问题。该技术是解决可能不适合公众的不受控制的细节存在的适度问题的解决方案。
它还设置了限制 Facebook 用户应该享有的自由，但如果不被审查，则不利于该平台的主要目标。用户不能发布或发送裸体、暴力或淫秽图像和文件。用户还可以报告特定帖子的不当之处，如果属实，则会被删除。此外，用户可以自行决定查看某些技术认为暴力或淫秽的图像。然而，尽管在社交媒体中创造更好的客户体验方面取得了巨大进步，但收集的数据用于在互联网上创建大多数用户不赞成的数字路径。
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Winder, D. (2019). Facebook Quietly Confirms Millions Of Unencrypted Instagram Passwords Exposed — Change Yours Now. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/daveywinder/2019/04/19/facebook-quietly-confirms-millions-of-unencrypted-instagram-passwords-exposed-change-yoursnow/#3651dcce4453