Theories of Causes of Poverty by David Brady
人文分析论文代写 The author focuses on discussing and evaluating methods that explain the cause of poverty. The author tries to fill the void in literature by ···
The author focuses on discussing and evaluating methods that explain the cause of poverty (Brady p. 157). The author tries to fill the void in literature by explaining poverty in terms of theory. He acknowledges that theorizing poverty has never been a simple endeavor to the scholar and hence little has been done. However, the need to have a consensus about the discussions on poverty and universally accepted root causes of poverty have necessitated the formulation of theories.
Brady identifies three theories to explain the causes of poverty.
They include behavior, structural, and political theories (Brady, p. 157). In behavioral theory, behavior is considered the root cause of poverty among people. The evidence has shown that behavior is highly predictive of many important life outcomes (Brady p. 158). He noted that the poor are poor because they engage in behaviors that are counterproductive and hence increase perpetuation of poverty. He identified such behaviors as single motherhood and unemployment. The demographies that show the context of this behavior there is increased prevalence to the risk of poverty.
Aggressivenssness, fussiness, and temperamental in children can lead parent to withdraw or limit supervision and cause persistence of lousy behavior later in like as well as life struggles and frustrations. An adolescent with rowdy behavior and verbally accost their teachers have high prevalence of being expelled from school and hence lack education. Adult bad behavior like crime can not only lead to imprisonment but lead to unemployed life and thus off economically. Behavior theory is a predictive model that give same results in different settings. The link between behavior and poverty has been applied in the formulation of policies and contexts in the bid to curbing the perpetuating poverty behaviors in people.
作者重点讨论和评估解释贫困原因的方法（Brady p. 157）。作者试图通过理论解释贫困来填补文学上的空白。他承认，对学者来说，将贫困理论化从来都不是一件简单的事情，因此几乎没有做过什么。然而，需要对贫困和普遍接受的贫困根源的讨论达成共识，需要理论的制定。
它们包括行为、结构和政治理论（布雷迪，第 157 页）。在行为理论中，行为被认为是人们贫困的根本原因。证据表明，行为可以高度预测许多重要的生活结果（Brady p. 158）。他指出，穷人之所以贫穷，是因为他们从事适得其反的行为，从而加剧了贫困的延续。他将此类行为确定为单身母亲和失业。显示这种行为背景的人口统计数据表明，贫困风险越来越普遍。
The structural theory is the other theory by Brady.
According to Brady, there exist demographic and economic contexts that influence the availability of opportunities and constraints that can reduce or cause poverty (Brady p. 161). The structural theory argues that there is a direct and indirect context that results in poverty-causing behaviors. The differences in poverty level are as a result of differences in exposures to poverty-causing structural settings.
The economic context is a fundamental issue in poverty. People find themselves in financial complexities that they lead to low-income life. Such economic activities as industrialization, deindustrialization, skills mismatch and economic growth and development can cause poverty. Also, there are demographic contexts such as bad neighborhoods, age, and sex composition, segregation, and urbanization. It is the role of the government to set up structures that do not influence structural poverty.
Structural problems such as deindustrialization, urban slums, and poor neighborhoods cause poverty behaviors such as low educations, crime, and joblessness, which are the recipe for poverty (Brady p. 162). Economic development is a remedy to poverty leading structural-related behaviors. Development of a country encourages growth in schools, healthcare, lower fertility and, consequently, helps reduce poverty. The phenomena can be explained using a country like China.
根据 Brady 的说法，存在影响可减少或导致贫困的机会和限制的人口和经济背景（Brady p. 161）。结构理论认为，导致贫困的行为存在直接和间接的背景。贫困水平的差异是由于对导致贫困的结构性环境的暴露程度不同造成的。
去工业化、城市贫民窟和贫困社区等结构性问题会导致低教育、犯罪和失业等贫困行为，这些都是导致贫困的原因（Brady p. 162）。经济发展是解决贫困导致结构性相关行为的良方。一个国家的发展鼓励学校、医疗保健、降低生育率的增长，从而有助于减少贫困。这种现象可以用中国这样的国家来解释。
On the other hand, it is the political theory of poverty.
Brady sees poverty as a political making. According to him, poverty is caused by power relations and collective choices about how resources should be distributed (Brady p. 164). Politics and power, as well as institutions that go with them, are the center of policymaking. Policies influence people’s behavior, and hence bad policies can cause poverty behaviors.
The outstanding explanation of political theory is the power resource theory (Brady p. 164). The theory contends that political actors have the power to mobilize less advantaged people for common interest for the collective bargaining power and control in policymaking. It has led to the creation of unions that front the benefit of particular groups and hence contribute to the reduction of policies that can increase poverty behaviors. It is evident in rich democracies where minorities have, and opposition groups have voice in policymaking. The use of power actors to advocate for fair distribution of resources reduces the influence of harmful policies.
Therefore, Brady encourages the integration of these theories in the understanding of poverty. He further recommends the use of more approaches together to have a more vibrant and broader look at poverty in not only the United States but also in other countries. It is productive to use theories explaining why some people or nations are poor and hence use them to device policy interventions.
布雷迪将贫困视为一种政治决策。在他看来，贫困是由权力关系和关于如何分配资源的集体选择造成的（Brady p. 164）。政治和权力以及与之相关的机构是决策的中心。政策会影响人们的行为，因此糟糕的政策会导致贫困行为。
政治理论的杰出解释是权力资源理论（Brady p. 164）。该理论认为，政治行动者有能力动员弱势群体为共同利益争取集体谈判权和决策控制权。它导致建立了以特定群体利益为先的工会，从而有助于减少可能增加贫困行为的政策。这在少数族裔拥有的富裕民主国家很明显，反对派团体在决策中拥有发言权。使用权力参与者来倡导资源的公平分配，可以减少有害政策的影响。
What can be Learned 人文分析论文代写
As a scholar, much can be deduced from this text. Brady offers more advanced insight into the holistic view of the causes of poverty. In this regard, poverty can be understood from three contexts including behavioral, structural ad political. The central idea of the three perspectives is poverty-related behaviors. The behaviors depend on the context and culture of the demography. Therefore, theories on the causes of poverty are the foundation upon which poverty reduction strategies should be based.
In developing countries, poverty is seen as individualistic or structural, while in developing countries poverty is seen as failure of government support. Also, poverty-related cultures in developing countries influence retarded economic growth that further causes poverty. The social and political theories explain the perpetuation of poverty when policies are made to favor the few.
作为一个学者，可以从这篇文章中推断出很多东西。 布雷迪提供了更深入的洞察贫困原因的整体观点。 在这方面，贫困可以从三个方面来理解，包括行为、结构和政治。 这三个视角的中心思想是与贫困相关的行为。 这些行为取决于人口统计学的背景和文化。 因此，贫困成因理论是制定减贫战略的基础。
在发展中国家，贫困被视为个人的或结构性的，而在发展中国家，贫困被视为政府支持的失败。 此外，发展中国家与贫困相关的文化会影响经济增长迟缓，从而进一步导致贫困。 社会和政治理论解释了当制定有利于少数人的政策时贫困的长期存在。
How it is Related to Social Welfare Policy
The three approaches enumerated by Brady can be used as fundamentals in the development and formulation of social welfare policy interventions. The reason being, policies will be context-based as well as evidence-based. That is, the systems would be tested to measure their outcomes to ensure that they do not incentivize poverty-related behaviors such as laziness and unemployment.
Brady 列举的三种方法可以用作社会福利政策干预措施制定和制定的基础。 原因是，政策将基于背景和证据。 也就是说，将对系统进行测试以衡量其结果，以确保它们不会激励与贫困相关的行为，例如懒惰和失业。
Work Cited 人文分析论文代写
Brady, David. “Theories Of The Causes Of Poverty.” Annual Review Of Sociology, vol 45, no. 1, 2019, pp. 155-175. Annual Reviews, doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022550. Accessed 9 Oct 2019.